ItemParticipatory planning and project performance in rural areas: a case of Nsimbo district council(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Magesi, Hezbon OnyangoMost rural areas in Tanzania suffer from inadequate service delivery that is due to inadequate social economic development projects that can help them attain such services. The government and other stakeholders have been allocating funds in rural areas to help solve certain pinching problems associated with lack of social economic infrastructures that include but not limited to schools, health facilities, water services and road services. Despite the fact that funds have been allocated to help solve the community’s problems, the communities have remained as they were since there has been lack of total community participation. To achieve the anticipated goals it is necessary for the rural community to adopt participatory planning approach in implementing various development projects taking place in the community. The objective of this study was to assess how participatory planning affects performance of development projects in rural areas with particular focus of Nsimbo District Council. A sample of 92 respondents was used to achieve the purpose of the study. The study found that more than 70% of the respondents interviewed had knowledge on participatory planning, they knew their local leaders and the roles they played in development projects, they understood the factors affecting effective participatory planning in attainment of project performance in their community. Respondents interviewed had at least received education of participatory planning, they understood their contribution towards achievement of development projects, they understood the sources of funds for carrying on the projects, and they had clear plans for projects sustainability. The key lesson learned from this study is that, better understanding of participatory planning resulted into robust achievement of social economic development projects in rural areas and thus will address the problems experienced by the local community. This calls for the government and policy makers to design appropriate participatory approach design than the existing Opportunity and Obstacles to Development that is currently being used. ItemThe influence of market risk on profitability of microfinance institutions in Tanzania: a case of Finca Microfinance Bank(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Mbuya, Kennedy HendryThis study assessed the influence of market risk on the profitability of microfinance institutions (MFIs) in Tanzania. Market risk is divided into interest rate risk and foreign exchange rate risk whose indicators were net interest margin and foreign exchange gains or losses respectively while having GDP, inflation and money supply as control variables. Profitability of microfinance institutions was measured by ROAA. The study analyzed the long run relationship between interest rate, foreign exchange rate and profitability of MFIs as well as the effect of interest rate risk and foreign exchange exposure on profitability of MFIs. The theory applied in the study was Capital Asset Pricing Model. The study employed quantitative research approach and time series research design. Secondary data was used in the course of this study, which was generated from the quarterly audited financial statements of FINCA microfinance bank from 2010 to 2020. In analysis of data, the study employed descriptive statistics, pairwise correlation matrix, and unit root test based on Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) test and Phillips Perron (PP) test. The study also used Johansen test for co-integration to test for long run relationship. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model and Error Correction Model (ECM) were used to determine both the short run and long run effect of interest rate and foreign exchange rate on profitability respectively. A diagnostic check was also carried out through Breusch-Godfrey test also known as Lagrange Multiplier (LM) test to test for autocorrelation, Jarque Bera (JB) test to test for normality and Breusch Pagan test to test for homoscedasticity. The results of co-integration test indicated that there is no long run relationship between interest rate, foreign exchange rate and profitability. Also the findings on the influence of change of interest rate on the profitability of microfinance institutions indicated that there is a statistically significant positive short run effect between interest rate, lag of GDP and profitability. Lastly foreign exchange risk has a negative significant association with profitability in the long run while it has no statistically significant influence on profitability in the short run. Macroeconomic variables don’t have any significant influence on the profitability of microfinance institutions both in the short run and in the long run. It is recommended that the microfinance institutions in Tanzania especially the locally owned need to find ways to mitigate the effect caused by market risk factors on their profits including the use of financial derivatives and asset securitization. ItemThe influence of marketing mix on performance of leather product enterprises in Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Said, MariamThe aim of this study was to examine the influence of marketing mix on performance of leather products enterprises in Tanzania. This included looking at how product, price, promotion and place influence performance of leather products enterprises in terms of profit and ROI. The population of study included all leather products enterprises in Dodoma and Mwanza region with the sample size of 134. A multiple linear regression model was used to conduct the analysis. The study found that product design, variety, and label all have an impact on performance (profit), with P values of 0.000, 0.002, and 0.018 and for ROI the P-values was 0.000, 0.001 and 0.049 respectively. Again, price is significantly related to performance to its component of price discount, cost based pricing and credit term pricing with 0.002, 0.000 and 0.000 p-value respectively for profit and the P-value for ROI was 0.034, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. Moreover, promotion variable has been found to have significant influence with advertisement and personal selling while sales promotion has shown insignificant influence towards performance with 0.001, 0.000 and 0.136 P-value respectively for profit and for ROI the P-value was 0.001, 0.000 and 0.201 respectively. Place also has shown the positive significant influence towards the performance especially by using location and distribution component while inventory has shown insignificant influence toward performance since it have greater P-value such as 0.001, 0.000 and 0.159 respectively for profit and for ROI the P-value was 0.000, 0.000 and 0.516 respectively. Additionally when combining all independent variables with respect to performance has shown significant influence. Product, price, place and promotion their P-values for profit were 0.045, 0.002, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. For ROI only product has insignificant influence with P-values of 0.073 while price, place and promotion were significant with P-values of 0.038, 0.000 and 0.000 respectively. The findings imply that when the enterprises use either products or price or place or promotion in their business this elements will have significant influence towards performance but when they combining all element in their business operation will have more influence towards their performance. Lastly, it is recommended in this study that most of the leather products enterprises to introduce and use marketing mix in their operation since it has been observed that few of them they apply in their operation. ItemInfluence of customers’ perception on electronic payment implementation in Tanzania: the case of public sector organization in Tanzania.(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Mwendamaka, Joel SebastianThe primary aim of this study was to investigate the influence of customers' perceptions on electronic payment implementation in public sector organizations. Specifically, the study intended to address three objectives such are; to assess the effect of customers' habits on payment on electronic payment implementation, to determine customers' awareness of the importance of electronic payment implementation, and to examine the influence of customer satisfaction on electronic payment implementation in Public Sector Organizations. The UTAUT2 model was adopted in this study to refference the electronic payment towards customer’s habits, awarenesss and satisfaction. This is to say, success, commitment, circumstances and social effect of the information technology use and purpose are evaluated within the perception of customers’ either to use or not use the e-payment. This study adopted a explanatory sequential mixed method. 100 taxpayers and 7 TRA staffs were selected by using systematic and purposive sampling procedures respectively. The study measurement was conducted based on specific objective variables. Each variable was measured according to its nature to the study. Both inferential and descriptive statistics were performed by using SPSS version 21 during data analysis. The findings revealed that; lifestyle and attitude of customers in using e-payment have a significant positive effect on electronic payment implementation. Also, ages, facilitating conditions, and technological exposures have a significant positive impact on electronic payment implementation. Furthermore, performance expectancy and price value have a significant positive effect on electronic payment implementation. Further, the study concluded that using these results, social interaction, provision of e-payment education, and psychological education are highly needed to impact the implementation of electronic payment. It finally recommended to the government that direct specific training sessions and sensitization campaigns should be provided to traders in order to increase the effective implementation of electronic payment in public sector organizations. Also there should be an effective government policy that might reflect the involvement of customers in the implementation of electronic payment. This will enable in a supportive way the implementation of the system in public sector organizations ItemThe influence of entreprenuerial behavior on performance of small and medium entreprises: a case of agro-dealers(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Masunga, Pendo BenniEntrepreneurial behaviors towards the business performance are quite imperative, this is recognized as an important drive in productivity, innovation and employment. In reality existence of some of the behaviors are connected to business performance. This study focused on the influence of entrepreneurial behaviors on business performance. It specifically addressed the influence of self-learning, innovative behavior, and self-efficacy on business performance. A cross sectional research design was adopted in this study to facilitate and handle data collection in a single point in time. The systematic random sampling technique was used to select the sample size of this study which involved 204 SME owners and operation managers from 102 SMEs of agro-dealers in Arusha District. The surveyed data were presented by using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The collected data were processed and analyzed by using SPSS software (Social Science Statistical Package). Findings revealed that, self-learning, self-efficacy and innovative behavior influence SMEs performance. Innovative behavior has greater influence compared to other behaviors, then followed by self-efficacy and last self-learning. By focusing on a specific line of business, this study contributed by assessing the influence of entrepreneurial behavior of both business owners and business managers on SMEs performance. The study concludes that, if SMEs are to achieve impressive performance, the entrepreneurial behavior of SME owners and managers cannot be underestimated. This study proposes that adequate attention be paid to entrepreneurial behavior as a determinant of business performance. ItemFactors influencing effectiveness of internal audit function in Tanzania local government authorities(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Wangilisasi, SelinaThe study assessed the factors affecting the effectiveness of internal audit function in Tanzania Local Government Authorities. Specific objectives were to assess the influence of quality assurance review on the effectiveness of internal audit function, to assess the influence of information technology on the effectiveness of internal audit function and to examine the influence of internal audit charter on Local Government Authorities. The study used cross-sectional and correlational designs. Collection of data was done via email by sending 370 questionnaires to internal audit managers and internal audit officers of 185 LGAs of which 210 respondents responded to the questionnaire. Analysis of data was done by using descriptive statistics and multiple linear regressions. The study revealed that quality assurance review is effectively performed in Tanzania Local Government Authorities. Additionally, it was revealed that internal auditors are not fully equipped in the use of information technology in Tanzania Local Government Authorities. Moreover, the study revealed that internal audit charter is adhered to in Tanzania Local Government authorities. It is recommended that Tanzania’s LGAs should improve the quality assurance review, the information system used and the internal audit charter since these variables have a good impact towards the effectiveness of the internal audit function. ItemFactors affecting implementation of controller and auditor general’s recommendations in selected local government authorities in Tanzania(The University of Dodma, 2021) Msenga, Elias E.A low percentage of implementation of Controller and Auditor General Recommendations show that the public sector is reluctant to take action on issued audit recommendations. This study examined the factors affecting implementation of Controller and Audit General Recommendations in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania. The objectives of the study were: to determine the influence of management support, role of audit committee and investigating the effectiveness of follow up mechanism in implementing Controller and Auditor General Recommendations. The study was conducted in three LGAs namely, Bukoba, Karatu and Sikonge DCs. Cross-sectional research design was adopted using both qualitative and quantitative method. The study targeted 81 respondents but only 75 returned the questionnaires, indicating the response rate of 93%. Purposive and non-probabilistic sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. Primary data were gathered through questionnaires and interview guide while secondary data were gathered through documentary review. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean and percentage as well as inferential statistics such as correlation and multiple linear regression. The study findings reveal that, Management support, the role of Audit Committee and effectiveness of Follow-up mechanism have direct influence on the implementation of Controller and Auditor General’s recommendations in Local Government Authorities. The study concluded that, successful implementation of Controller and Auditor General Recommendations require full management support, effectiveness of Audit Committee and close follow up by CAG and LAAC. Besides, the study recommends that the CMTs provide much support toward the implementation process of the CAG recommendations, to facilitate Council Audit Committee in their statutory meetings and appoint competent committee members. Finally, the study recommends that LAAC visit or conduct hearing sessions to all 184 Councils in Tanzania each year. ItemThe role of digital technology on local government authorities own source revenue collection in Singida region(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Maira, NeligwaThis study examined the role of digital technology on Local Government Authorities (LGAs) own source Revenue Collection in Singida Region. Specifically, the study determined; the influence of Local Government Revenue Collection and Information System (LGRCIS) on Local Government Authorities own source revenue collection in Singida Region, the influence of e-payment on Local Government Authorities own source revenue collection in Singida region and assesses the capacity of staff in enhancing Local Government Authorities own source revenue collection in Singida Region. A cross section research design was employed to collect data from a sample of 115 respondents. Purposive and simple randomly sampling techniques were used to select Singida region and staff in LGAs as respondents respectively. Data were collected through semi-structured questionnaires, key informant interview and documentary review. To establish the relationship between Local Government Revenue Collection and Information System (LGRCIS), e-payment, capacity of staff and revenue collection, Multiple Linear Regression Model was used where R2 was applied to measure the explanatory power of the model. The study concludes that, LGRCIS has great role as digital technology tool to increase own source revenue collection in Singida region LGAs. Moreover, E-payment play important roles digital technology tool to increase own source revenue collection in Singida region LGAs. Likewise, capacity of staff in revenue collection is important in improving own source revenue collection by using digital technology in Singida region LGAs. Basing on the findings of the study, it was recommended that, for successful implementation of the digital technology in improving own source revenue collection, LGA‟s must ensure that technical assistance is available in the operation of Local Government Revenue Collection and Information System (LGRCIS), Local Government Authorities may consider providing personalized service and automated support applications in a revenue collection system as well as recruiting and training employees to improve staff capacity for enhanced revenue collection ItemCorporate governance and firm performance: evidence from microfinance institutions in Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Solomon, SaimonThis study examined the impact of corporate governance on the performance of a firm. Three elements of corporate governance were involved namely board of directors’ size, board of directors’ composition and audit committee composition were assessed to find out their relations to Microfinance Institutions (MFIs) financial performance. This study was done to contribute specific insights on the relationship and influence of corporate governance on firm performance especially due to limited literature in Tanzania. The study used a cross-sectional design, in which data were collected at a single point in time. Quantitative data were collected from 80 CEOs/Managers of MFIs under study. Descriptive, simple and multiple regression analyses were done to get general information on the respondent’s characteristics and corporate governance components and influence on MFIs performance. The study found that most of the respondents (53 of them) which is equivalent to 66.2%, had the title of managers or supervisors and 14 respondents equivalent to 17.4% were the CEOs/directors. Moreover, MFIs agreed to have boards with independence (M=4.48, SD=0.49) and gender diversity (M=4.67, SD=0.41). However, the respondents were uncertain on whether the large size of the board provides more experience and expertise to the board (M=3.48, SD =0.872). Yet MFIs agreed to have an audit committee with members who have accounting/auditing/finance expertise. Findings from regression results further show that the relationship is significant between board size, board composition (board independence and gender and geographical diversity) and audit committee composition (educational background and experience in microfinance issues) with firm performance. The study concludes that corporate governance influences the financial performance of MFIs. The study recommends that MFIs and policymakers should ensure that the board of directors be independent with the gender diversity and the audit committee be composed of members who are experts in accounting/auditing to enhance performance. ItemThe effect of macroeconomic variables on stock market returns: evidence from Dar es salaam stock exchange(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Lemeirut, FaithStock markets are influenced by macroeconomic factors and have a link to real-world activity. This study sought to establish the effect of macroeconomic variables (inflation rate, exchange rate, interest rate, and money supply) as independent variables on stock market return as dependent variable. The study utilized a quantitative research approach and explanatory research was used as the study design. Secondary data were used covering a period of 10 years from 2011 to 2021. The study employed descriptive statistics, unit roots that were tested by using Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillips Perron (PP) unit root test to determine if the variables were stationary or non-stationary. The study used co-integration analysis by employing Johansen test to test the relationship between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns. The study findings indicate that there is co-integration (relationship). Therefore, Error Correction model (ECM) was applied to determine both long run and short run effect of variables on stock market returns. This study came up with the results that money supply, inflation rate and interest rate had significant positive effect on stock market returns while exchange rate had significant negative effect on stock market returns. This study used correlation to determine the strength between macroeconomic variables and stock market returns, on which this test enabled to determine whether multicollinearity problems existed or not. Additionally, the study used Granger causality test to understand the cause and effect of macroeconomic variables on stock market returns. The findings showed that stock market returns affected exchange rate, money supply, and inflation rate except interest rate. The study recommends that investors in stock market should take into consideration the key macroeconomic variables that tend to influence the stock market returns which in turn create uncertainty on return from their investments. More importantly, capital and securities market authorities may have an understanding of the impact of macroeconomic variables on listed firms' stock market returns, as well as monetary authorities' understanding of the effects of macroeconomic indicators on stock market returns and control of the selected macroeconomic variables in order to control stock market return and improve security market stability and efficiency. ItemFactors influencing the implementation of open performance review and appraisal system in public institutions: a case of the University of Dodoma(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Mwambete, Anitha A.This study intended to examine the factors influencing the implementation of the Open Performance Review and Appraisal System in Public Institutions in Tanzania. Specifically, the study aimed to examine the influence of superior, subordinate individual factors and appraisal process factors on the implementation of the Open Performance Review Appraisal System in terms of relevance and timeliness of training. The study employed a case study research design, and data was collected from non-academic staff who attended the training. The study involved 98 participants who responded to the questionnaire and 10 key informants interviewed. The study used a mixed approach, i.e., qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis, while quantitative data were subjected to Descriptive Statistics and Binary Logistic model. It was found that supervisor’s knowledge of appraisee’s job, supervisor’s position to observe the performance of appraisee, subordinate’s educational qualification, subordinate work experience, employee involvement in setting objectives, and performance feedback have a significant influence on the implementation of Open Performance Review and Appraisal System in terms of relevance and timeliness of the training. The study concludes that superior individual factors in terms of supervisor knowledge on appraisee’s job and position to observe appraisee performance influence the implementation of Open Performance Review and Appraisal System. The study concluded further that subordinate individual factors in terms of work experience and educational qualification influence the implementation of the Open Performance Review Appraisal System in terms of the training. Furthermore, the study concludes that employee involvement in setting objectives and performance feedback influence the implementation of the Open Performance Review Appraisal System in terms of training. The study recommends that policy makers, management, and superiors to redirect attention addressing problems associated with implementing the Open Performance Review Appraisal System to include superior, subordinate, and appraisal process factors. ItemAccess to financial and non-financial services on performance of small and medium sunflower oil processing firms in Tanzania: the role of internal factors(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Maganga, MariaThis study aim to assess the influence of access to financial and non-financial services on performance of Small and Medium Sunflower oil processing firms in Dodoma City: when mediated with internal factors. Specifically, this study guided by four specific objectives which were, to determine the influence of financial services on performance of Small and Medium Sunflower oil Processing firms, to determine the influence of non-financial services on performance of Small and Medium Sunflower oil Processing firms, to analyze the influence of financial services when mediated with internal factors on performance of Small and Medium Sunflower oil Processing firms and to analyze the influence of non-financial services when mediated with internal factors on performance of Small and Medium Sunflower oil Processing firms. The sample size of 178 of Small and Medium Sunflower oil processing firms were employed whereby Probability and non-probability techniques employed to get sample. Regression and structural equation modelling were employed to analyses data. The findings of the study indicated that, the loan access has significant influence on the performance of small and medium sunflower oil processing firms. Capacity building has significant contribution to the performance of small and medium sunflower oil processing firms. Networking is also only a significant non-financial contributing variable to the profit performance (P-value =0.043), whereby, Branding and entrepreneurship traits have a significant contribution to the performance of small and medium sunflower oil processing firms (P-values = 0.04) and (P-value =0.016) respectively. The study recommends that, the Government and different institutions financial and non-financial should intervene in ensuring that the Small and medium sunflower processing firms are provided with loans and grants. Financial institutions should scale up education to the firm's owners and the community at large to understand the opportunity available in Sunflower production and how they can access loans to develop their business. ItemFactors affecting job satisfaction of academic staff in public universities: a case of the University of Dodoma(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Patience, Emilia JohnThis study intended to examine the factors affecting job satisfaction among academics in public universities in Tanzania. Specifically, it attempted: to determine the effect of intrinsic factors on job satisfaction among academic staff at UDOM, to examine the effect of extrinsic factors on job satisfaction among academic staff at UDOM and to determine best predictor between intrinsic and extrinsic factors of job satisfaction among academic staff at UDOM. The population of study comprised of all academic staff in the University of Dodoma, where, the sample size was269. The study used a cross sectional design and employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Data from academic staff were collected using questionnaire, while interviews were used to collect information from heads of departments. Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Binary Logic Regression model, whereby, qualitative data were analyzed using Content analysis. The study discovered that intrinsic factors responsible for job satisfaction among academic staff at UDOM are relationship, recognition, advancement, nature of work and responsibility. Moreover, the study found out that the extrinsic factors that influence job satisfaction among academic staff at UDOM are remuneration, promotion, job security and working environment that includes equipment’s, offices, clean and non hazardous conditions. Finally, the study observed that intrinsic factors are better predictors of employee satisfaction than extrinsic factors. Thus, the study recommends that, the management of UDOM should design and establish deliberate mechanisms to foster and improve relationships, recognition, and advancement among academic staff. Moreover, it should work on the design of work so as improve aspects of nature of work and responsibility. The study further recommends to the UDOM management and the government to make improvements in aspects related to remuneration, promotion, job security and working environment. ItemThe contribution of quality management on employee’s performance in public institutions: a case of Tanzania Revenue Authority(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Mallya, LouisQuality management has recently been an important aspect in improving the performance of employees in any organization, be it business or non-business. This study principally assessed the contribution of quality management on the employee’s performance in the public sector. The study had focused on three indicators which are the top management strategies, human resource management practices and process management. The research adopted a cross sectional study design where a specific focus was at Tanzania Revenue Authority, Dar es Salaam where interview and questionnaires were conducted to obtain qualitative and quantitative data respectively. The study adopted two sampling approaches, where simple random sampling was employed in selecting respondents for filling of questionnaires while purposive sampling technique was used to select respondents for interviews. The quantitative data was analysed through descriptive statistics and the relationship between independent variables and the dependent variable was established using multiple regressions analysis technique. The study findings revealed that, all the three independent variables top management strategies, human resource management practices and process management had a significant positive relationship with the dependent variable (employees` performance). Therefore, the three variables of quality management are significant predictors of employees` performance. The study recommends that, when practicing quality management, organizations and business should focus on having strategies which enhances quality of services and businesses, and therefore enhancing the performance of employees. Also, all practices regarding making a conducive environment for employees should be highly focused. Employees should be properly rewarded and given the best working environment to be able to fulfil company`s objectives. Apart from that, organizations should practice process management in their organization for their continued survival ItemImpact of organizational culture on effective strategy implementation in nongovernment organizations in Tanzania: Lessons from Elizbeth Glacer Pediatric Aids Foundation (EGPAF)(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Mbilinyi, AbelThe performance of organizations is directly impacted by organizational culture and strategy implementation. Values and beliefs are roots of organizations culture which end up on developing strategies and its implementations through identify weakness and its opportunity which may lead to identifying the value of the organization. The study aimed at assessing the impact of the culture of the organization on strategy implementation in non-government organizations in Tanzania. This paperwork was guided by the following objectives: 1) to determine how organizations norms and beliefs affect strategy implementation in organizations, 2) to find out the influence of communication model and style in the strategy implementation in organizations, to examine the contribution of organization principles on strategy implementations in organizations and analyzing the extent to which organization practices influence strategy implementations in organizations. A descriptive research design was employed using 50 respondents with questionnaire as data collecting tool. The study found that organizations norms and beliefs have a significant influence on strategy implementations (β = 0.335; p =.015). The communication model and style are significantly shown to influence strategy implementation in organizations (β = 3.045; p =.001). The organization principles have a significant contribution to strategy implementations in organizations (β = 3.020; p =.010). Organization daily practices have a significant contribution to strategy implementations in organizations (β = 2.020; p =.000). It is recommended that organizations and firms stakeholders should appreciate the importance of organization culture in strategy implementation and in the general performance of their firms, administrative management has to monitor and evaluate strategy progress in regular basis and provide timely feedback in order to take corrective measures. Managers have to be involved in the decision of the implementation and satisfactory communication between all parties is important for fruitful implementation as effective communication lead to better performance. ItemEffects of internal control system on performance of revenue collection in local government authorities of Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Kasoga, Zilipa StephenThis study examined the effects of internal control system on the performance of revenue collection in Local Government Authorities in Tanzania. Specifically the study focused on examining the effects of control activities, information and communication and monitoring activities on the performance of revenue collection. The study adopted cross sectional research design and a sample of 152 respondents was selected from three LGAs using purposive sampling technique. Data collection methods included interview, questionnaire and documentary review. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis and quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics where multiple linear regression model was used. The study found out that control activities make LGAs adhere to policies and procedure, training of staff and segregation of duties in revenue collection. The findings also revealed that information and communication lead to transfer of information, record transaction and proper identification and capturing information in revenue collection. Furthermore, the finding indicated that monitoring activities contribute to regular internal audit, supervisory activities and regular management activities in revenue collection process. Therefore, study concludes that; internal control system significantly improves the performance of revenue collection in Local Government Authorities of Tanzania. Hence, for sustainable revenue collection performance, the Local Government Authorities in Tanzania should consider components of internal control system namely; control activities, information and communication and monitoring activities. Also Local Government Authorities should strengthen internal audit unit, capacity building to its officers entrusted with monitoring revenue collection and ensuring realistic budget planning. ItemImpact of marketing mix strategies on patient satisfaction in public hospitals in Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Obedi, Joseph JuliusThis dissertation reports the findings of the assessment of the impact of marketing mix strategies on patient satisfaction in public hospitals in Tanzania. In particular, the dissertation broadly reports on three objectives, namely the effect of health distribution strategy on patients’ satisfaction at care and treatment clinic; the effects of the process strategy on patients’ satisfaction at care and treatment clinic; and lastly, the effect of personnel strategy on patients’ satisfaction at care and treatment clinic in the area of the study. A case study design was employed to generate using questionnaire owing from the fact that there is an increase of population in Dodoma Region and the hospital is the most affected in the number of patients. A sample size of 356 individuals was obtained through non-probability and probability sampling techniques. Data were analyzed through SPSS, version. The study revealed that health distribution strategy has no significant influence on patients’ satisfaction. Further, the process strategies were revealed to have effects on patients’ satisfaction while the personnel behaviors and practices influence customers’ satisfaction and people’s tendency to visit health units for services. Following these findings, the study recommends the government to strengthen the health personnel’s ‘communication skills thorough in-service training and communication skills courses for health personnel in the health training institutes. Further, the government, through the Ministry of Health should strengthen supervision practices in the health institutions to regulate the communication and practices of the health personnel in their areas. Health facility management need to focus on how they can reduce patient waiting time at the facilities, meaning that the time spent by a patient until being attended need to be looked on by ensuring that provision of services starts early and there should be enough medical personnel to provide services. Also every facility need to have customer feedback mechanisms so that the management can know what are the needs of their customers, which areas need to be improved in the process of providing health services. Lastly but not least there should be improved confidentiality and privacy in the whole process of service delivery, every service delivery points should be designed in a such a way that customers feel comfortable to talk freely with health personnel and give out all his/her concerns so that comprehensive treatment can be provided. ItemFactors affecting individual investors’ risk tolerance: a case Of CRDB Bank and Tanzania cigarette company(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Mkupaya, MwajumaThis study presents the assessment on the factors affecting individual investors’ risk tolerance, particularly in Tanzania using the case of CRDB and Tanzania Cigarette Company (henceforth TCC). The main objective of this study is to assess factors affecting risk tolerance of individual investors. The study used a sample of 80 respondents from the selected companies. In addition, the study used secondary data which were obtained from different literatures such as reports, published and unpublished papers and other related documents. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, and linear regression were used to check both association and influence of demographic and psychological factors on individual investors’ risk tolerance. The study had two specific objectives; the first objective was to assess the effect of the demographic factors on the individual investor’s risk tolerance at CRDB and TCC whereby variables involved were gender, age, education, income, marital status and number of dependents. The findings reveals that age, education, number of dependents, marital status and employment were statistically insignificant to the risk tolerance of individual investors while income and gender were statistically significant and had a positive relationship with the risk tolerance of individual investors. The second objective was to examine the effect of psychological factor on the individual investor’s risk tolerance at CRDB and TCC whereby variables used include overconfidence, loss aversion and mental accounting. The findings show that overconfidence, loss aversion and mental accounting were positive and significantly related to the risk tolerance of individual investors. This study recommends that stakeholders should take into consideration key factors such as gender and income, loss aversion, mental accounting and overconfidence in investing in companies. The study further recommends that, the Government and Regulatory Authority should make use of the findings obtained from this study when formulating and implementing various policies related to investment decision. ItemThe role of mobile banking services on customer satisfaction in commercial banks: a case study of NCBA (T) bank - Dar es salaam, Tanzania.(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Laisser, NengarivoThis study examined the role of mobile banking on customer satisfaction. Three elements of mobile banking i.e. transaction service, information service and cost of service were assessed to find out the role they play on customer satisfaction at NCBA bank Tanzania. The study adopted a cross sectional study design where data was collected at one point in time. In addition to that, both qualitative as well as quantitative approaches were employed in collecting data for triangulation. Quantitative data was collected from 99 NCBA customers through survey, whereas, the qualitative data were collected from NCBA officials through interviews. Quantitative data was analyzed through SPSS, where, descriptive statistics as well as inferential and Logistic Regression model were used. Furthermore, the relationships between variables were established through binary Logistic Regression. The qualitative data also were analyzed through Thematic Analysis technique. Findings show that there is a progressive significant relationship between mobile banking transaction service and customer satisfaction at NCBA. A positive significant relationship is also established between mobile banking information service and customer satisfaction. There is also a positive significant relationship between mobile banking service cost and customer satisfaction at NCBA. The study concludes that mobile banking enhances customer satisfaction in commercial banks. The study recommends for more efforts to be made in making sure mobile banking technology is enhanced. Also, more investment should be made in making sure that challenges associated with mobile banking technology are minimized. Moreover, banks should make sure that they maintain reasonable and minimum costs of mobile banking services. ItemImplication of customer preference in the relationship between mobile money service and small and medium enterprises income: case of hardware retailers.(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Nguvava, NeemaSince the introduction of mobile money in developing countries, the way business transactions operate changes tremendously. This study examined customer preferences implication on the relationship between mobile money services and the income of hardware retailing Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Dodoma city. Specifically, the study examines the influence of the number of agents, mobile money microcredits, and mobile money saving opportunity on SMEs income. Also, it examined the effect of customer preference on the relationship between mobile money services and SMEs income. A cross-sectional research design was adopted and included 132 hardware retailing SMEs owners and managers who were selected systematically from them results were quantitatively analysed. Findings showed that mobile money agents, mobile money microcredits, and mobile money-saving opportunities influence hardware retailing SMEs income. Specifically, sufficiency, convenience, and flexibility are indicators of the number of agents, all with p values of 0.001, affordability (p=0.001), and payment methods (p=0.031). Also, cost savings (p=0.001) and time-saving (p=0.042) were statistically significant related to surveyed SMEs income. Additionally, it was found out that customer preference implied the relationship between mobile money services and SMEs income. Based on this studys findings, it is concluded that the number of mobile money agents that include (sufficiency, convenience, and flexibility) influenced the income of hardware retailing SMEs in Dodoma city. The mobile money micro credits mobile money saving opportunity that includes saving costs, security, and time-saving affected the income of hardware retailing SMEs. Additionally, customer preference intervened in the relationship between mobile money services and surveyed hardware retailing SMEs income. It was recommended that that number of mobile money agents be well considered as it influenced the surveyed hardware retailing SMEs income. Therefore, agents that provide mobile money services to the surveyed retailers should provide services that are sufficiently, conveniently, and flexible services to customers, including the hardware retailers, to improve these retailers income. Basing on the objectives and results of this study, it is suggested for further researches on the challenges facing SMEs on the usage of mobile money services. This is the gap that was not covered in this study.