ItemAn investigation on the factors associated with placement of teachers and its impact on work performance in Morogoro Municipality, Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Mgina, Faraja EmmanuelThis study aimed at investigating factors associated with placement of secondary school teachers to primary schools and its impacts on work performance with reference to Morogoro Municipality. Employee placement is the practice of allocating a new employee to a point inside his or her domain of expert where the servant will have an equitable chance for attainment. Moreover, those placed are found to enter into stress and lack motivations to work. The study employed a mixed research approach and used Case study research design. The study involved a sample of 103 study participants where 90 participants (teachers) from 6 wards, 6 WEOS, 6 HoS and 1 District Education Officer (Primary). The participants were selected through purposive sampling techniques. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, questionnaire and documentary review. In this study qualitative data were analyzed by using thematic analysis framework developed by Braun and Crake (2006) while Quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that due to scarcity of teachers and the overcrowdings of pupils in primary schools different criteria were used to select teachers who were placed in primary schools. These included teachers who possessed diploma level, teachers who taught primary schools and later upgraded their education level to obtain degrees, teachers who taught Arts subjects in secondary schools and those who had few sessions per week. Although, these were obvious criteria, the hidden ones brought about by respondents included biasness among heads and subordinate teachers and increased conflicts among teachers and heads of school. Moreover, it was found that most of teachers who were placed in primary schools lacked competence from the fact that the methods of teaching in secondary schools were quite different from that of primary schools. Also, secondary school teachers placed in primary school did not undergo any induction or orientation course to enable them undertake the facilitation of teaching and learning in primary schools despite student-teacher ratio being higher to be handled. Furthermore, the current study revealed that teachers who were placed from secondary school to primary school were challenged by the availability of overcrowded classrooms, poor facilities and poor learning environment, and biasness between secondary and primary school teachers. Moreover, the criteria put for placing teachers were not participatory and were politically oriented to fulfill political aspirations and not professionally oriented. The study recommended that, there is a need to have a greater stakeholder participation to enable the handling of placement program. ItemHeadteachers challenges and coping strategies in managing primary schools implementing fee free education in Tanzania: The case of Geita district In Geita region(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Samwel, LuciaThis dissertation reports the findings of an investigation on headteachers’ challenges’ and coping strategies in managing primary schools in implementing FFE in Geita district. Specifically, the study explores the headteachers in managing primary schools in implementing FFE, challenges facing headteachers in managing primary schools in implementing FFE, and coping strategies used to address challenges in managing primary schools in implementing FFE. The study was guided by the System Theory of Management. The study employed a qualitative research approach, where a case study research design was used. Data were collected from 28 participants through interviews, FGD and documentary review, these participant were sampled through purposive sampling technique. In this sample were 12 participant SMCs,10 were Headteachers, 5 were WECs, and 1 DEO. The findings obtained in field were analyzed through qualitative and presented based on the themes emerged. The findings revealed that headteachers have several duties to fulfill in order to ensure effective school management in implementation of FFE which are to ensure enrolment of all pupils without any payment, Management and utilization of capitation grants, management and utilization of teaching and learning process, to ensure the availability of teaching and learning materials and to manage and supervise the school development project under FFE. Also, some of the challenges facing headteachers are lacking in-service training in school management, inadequate finances, inadequate physical infrastructure, shortage of teaching and learning materials, and lack of parent support. Furthermore, the study findings revealed that the coping strategies used were double shift and class streams, using school committees in parent meetings, educating parents and community on FFE, hiring temporary trained teachers, and sharing experience. It was concluded that implementing FFE policy requires headteachers with possession of skills, knowledge, experience and resources to ensure successful execution of such duties, hence successful implementation of FFE policy. Based on the study findings, it is recommended that the government should provide pre and in-service training, seminars and workshops to all headteachers and teachers in school management employ more teachers, construct enough classrooms and teachers houses to help headteachers in school management implementing FFE to provide quality education. ItemExploring secondary schools management practices for nurturing students’ discipline through scout clubs in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2022) Katto, JacklineThis study explored secondary schools’ management practices for nurturing students’ discipline through scout clubs as schools’ extra-curricular activities in Bagamoyo district, Tanzania. The study was guided by three objectives namely first to: explore the participants’ views on the importance of scout clubs in nurturing students’ discipline in secondary schools; second, to investigate the school management teams’ administrative practices related to the engagement of scout clubs in nurturing students’ discipline in secondary schools; and third, to explore the evidence on the disciplinary outcomes of school management teams’ engagement of scout clubs in nurturing students’ discipline. The study employed qualitative approach coupled with descriptive case study design. Purposive and convenience sampling procedures were used to obtain 18 participants who included 2 heads of schools, 2 discipline teachers, 2 scout teachers and 12 scout students. Data were gathered through interviews, focus group discussion, documentary review and observations. Data were analyzed descriptively following the framework that uses coding to develop themes. The study established that scout clubs are important in secondary schools since school managements engage them to maintain students’ discipline. Further, it was revealed that scout clubs improve adherence to school rules and regulations, create a calm state and develop hardworking behaviour among students. It was therefore concluded that scout clubs play a great role in promoting students’ discipline in schools such that they could be used as a means to sustain discipline in schools. The study recommends that scout clubs need to be emphasized and awareness be created in schools to enable the school management nurture students’ discipline through the scout clubs. The study opens an avenue for more studies in the area of students’ discipline. ItemPerception of blind teachers towards the management of inclusive teaching in secondary school: a case of Tabora municipality(The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mugassa, Sweetbertha NeemaTeachers with disability have right to work like any other people in the world. There is a wider body of evidence which supports the view that persons with blindness are employed in a diverse of jobs and such persons perform their activities effectively despite being treated differently. This study aimed to assess the perception of blind teachers towards the management of inclusive teaching environment in secondary schools in Tanzania. The study was guided by three objectives. The first objective aimed to explore the perceptions of teachers with blindness towards management of inclusive teaching environment in secondary schools. The second objective aimed to explore perceptions of teachers with blindness regarding enablers within inclusive teaching environment in ordinary secondary schools. The third objective aimed to explore perceptions of teachers with blindness regarding the barriers that they face when they teach within inclusive teaching environment in secondary schools. The study used positioning theory and adopted case study design and qualitative approach. A total of 15blind teachers were included in the study as respondent. Interviews and Focus Group Discussions were used as tools for collecting data which were analyzed thematically. The study findings reveal that majority of teachers with blindness have positive perception regarding inclusive teaching. Again the enablers in inclusive teaching included the support from staff and school management. It was further found out that teachers with blindness face some barriers such as poor discipline from students, class management, poor infrastructure, inadequate teaching materials and being ignored by senior academic leaders. The study concluded that education stakeholders should put more effort at improving inclusive teaching environment. The study recommends that the government of Tanzania, through the Ministry of Educational and Vocational Training, should promote and improve inclusive teaching environment. ItemThe Role of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in improving Teachers’ Resource Centres (TRCs) in Dodoma Region, Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2022) Chiwanga, RahelThis qualitative study is about investigation of the Role of Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in improving Teacher Resource Centres (TRCs) in Dodoma Region, Tanzania. The study was conducted in Kondoa, Dodoma City and Chamwino districts in Dodoma region from April to August 2021. Specifically, the study investigated strategies planned by LGAs to improve TRCs. It further examined implementation of strategies planned TRCs to enhance Professional Development (PD). Lastly, the Study determines the challenges faced during the implementation of the strategies planned to improve TRCs. The study used different literature to identify the research gap. CIPP Model guided the study. Purposive sampling was employed to get sample size of 14 participants including three District Primary Education Officers (DPEOs), three District Executive Directors (DEDs), and eight Teachers Resources Centre (TRC) Coordinators. Data were collected by using documentary review, observation and semi-structured interview methods and analysed thematically. The study found that District Primary Education Officers (DPEOs) and TRC Coordinators used different strategies to improve operation of TRCs in supporting PD. Additionally, TRC Coordinators, local authorities leaders such as DEOs through the office of DEDs, and other education stakeholders worked together to achieve the planned strategies in an attempt to improve TRC activities. Eventually, the study revealed challenges that faced implementation of the planned strategies. The study recommends that the LGAs and other educational stakeholders should solicit reliable sources of funds for improving TRCs, provision of teaching and learning materials whereas. The Government should rehabilitate TRC buildings and infrastructures. This study is useful particularly in policy making, enhancement of PD and improvement of quality of TRCs. ItemPerceived influence of background characteristics on the career choice among undergraduate students in Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Rweyemamu, BraviusThis study investigated the perceived influence of background characteristics on career choice among undergraduate students in Tanzania. The motivation to undertake the study stemmed from the need to understand the characteristics that influence career choices for undergraduate students in Tanzania. The study was guided by four objectives, which were toi) examine the influence of individual characteristics on career choices, ii) investigate the effect of family characteristics on making career choices, iii) examine the effect of school characteristics on making career choices, and iv) examine the influence of peers on career choices. The study employed a quantitative research approach to generate data from 185 undergraduate students from one Public University in central Tanzania. A cross-sectional research design was used to generate data through questionnaires. Data were analyzed by binary logistics regression model. The findings revealed that family characteristics and peers have a strong influence on career choice among undergraduate students. Further, schools have effects on students' career choice albeit they lacked proper programmes to help students when they have confusions about career choice. Although these factors were largely ignored, students’ individual characteristics defined by interests, capabilities, and talents have a strong influence on students’ career choice compared to other factors. Generally, the study concluded that students had low exposure to programmes related to their careers and this made them to seek advice from their friends close to them and graduates who had experience with the university environment. The study recommends that career guidance should start at the family level by identifying children's talents and interests. There should be career guidance and counseling programmes from primary school level to expand knowledge and awareness for suitable career choices. Likewise, peer’s advice should be guided by career guidance counselors and parents to help undergraduate students to have proper career choices. It is recommended that the government should develop teachers’ capacity for career guidance on guiding students on proper career choices. ItemPrevalence of teaching occupation stress and management strategies among public secondary schools teachers in Tanzania: experience from Ifakara Town Council(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Mkana, KelvinThis study explored the prevalence of teaching occupation stress and management strategies among public secondary schools teachers in Tanzania: Experience from Ifakara Town Council.The study was underpinned by the Stress and Coping Theory. This study employed a concurrent mixed research methods approach and descriptive study research design. Six school heads and fifty-four heads of subjects departments were sampled by the means of purposive sampling strategies while one hundred and sixty teachers were sampled through convenience sampling strategies. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions, and close ended questionnaires. In the first theme, the study found common signs of stress, such as low concentration in teaching among young teachers, few teachers overreacting at the workplace, teachers’ unhappiness with their profession, and teachers’ isolation. Teachers’ worries about their duties were not among the common signs of stress. In the second theme, the study found that the majority of teachers had teaching professional stress caused by students breaking up school laws and regulations, shortage of classrooms, absence of housing and teaching allowances. Other causes of stress were big teaching workload, and poor cooperation between teachers and students’ parents in the aspect of nurturing students. In the third theme, it was found that school heads managed teachers’ stress through guidance and counseling services, regular provision of teachers’ professional development training, and application of communication skills strategies. School heads also assisted teachers in sharing stress issues with their co-workers. Moreover, school heads advised their fellow teachers to take active participation in sports and games as a means of treating work stress. School heads did not educate teachers on timekeeping, and teachers’ decision-making as other techniques of mitigating teachers’ stress in the study area. In line with the results of this study, the current researcher recommends that special programmes should be developed for mitigating teaching stress. In addition, strong measures should be taken against indiscipline students. Also, enough classrooms and teachers’ houses should be constructed. Lastly, teachers should be effectively involved in decisions making. On the other hand, this study recommends another study to be conducted regarding factors for low teaching and learning concentration among young teachers in secondary schools in Tanzania. Also, a study to be conducted on the influence of school heads’ time management skills on managing work stress among secondary school teachers in Tanzania. ItemThe use of information and communication technology as a pedagogical tool in teaching and learning in primary schools in Tanzania: a case of Njombe District Council(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Magere, Kichere ChachaThe study investigated on the use of Information and Communication (ICT) as apedagogical tool in primary schools in Tanzania. Theoretical adoption modal was used to guide the thinking of this study. Thes study employed the qualitative research approach with a case study design. The sample included 50 pupils, 10 teachers, 2 head teachers, one (1) Ward Education Officer and the District Education Officer, making a total number of 62 paticipants. Data were collected through interviews, observations and documentary review. The findings indicated that teachers were able to use the ICT as a pedagogical tool in facilitating teaching and learning in selected primary schools which was counted as a great success attributed to teacher’s workshop capacity building and ICT enhanced learning environment. It was also found that ICT enhanced the quality of education by increasing pupils’ motivation and engagement in learning, facilitating the acquisition of basic skills, improved and promising performance, and maximizing retention of knowledge among pupils. The study concludes that although the use of ICT as a pedagogical tool in teaching and learning in primary schools is important, there were some challenges that impeded its application, such a shortage of consistent internet connectivity, computers, teachers’ regular training and technical support. The study recommends to have regular training for teachers and that there is a need of a supportive ICT infrastructure investment in primary schools so as to make a use of ICT as a pedagogical tool in teaching and learning in primary schools a reality. ItemEnhancing environmental management competences in teaching and learning geography through designing and implementing environmental instructional lesson materials in secondary school(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Kayaga, CharlesThe purpose of this study was to establish appropriate strategies for enhancing students’ competencies in environmental management during the teaching and learning process in secondary school in Tanzania. The study employed a Gradual Release of Responsibility (GRR) model in which teachers’ and students’ responsibilities were defined clearly to shape the Environmental Instructional Lesson materials (ELM). The sample population involved ten (10) Geography teachers, thirty-two (32) students, twenty (20) community members, two (2) environmental experts and two (2) lecturers located Dodoma Region. The study employed a mixed approach integrating both the qualitative and quantitative aspects in designing, implementation, assessment and evaluation of the instructional materials developed for enhancing students’ competences in environmental management. An exploratory sequential study was used in designing the ELMs from research data. Data analysis was done through thematic analysis for qualitative data and descriptive analysis for quantitative data. Research data were gathered through different methods such as interviews, document analysis and classroom observations. The findings from the study indicates that the most prevailing environmental problems perceived by the involved society are deforestation, soil erosion and mismanagement of wastes. The study revealed number of challenges teachers face in teaching and learning environmental problems, includes shortage of teaching and learning materials, lack of in-service training and lack of support from other education stakeholder in integrating the most prevailing environmental problems during the teaching and learning process. Moreover, the findings indicate that, the active involvement of teachers and experts in the development of the lesson materials lead to the establishment of materials that assessed to be effective to enhance students’ competences in environmental education. The mean was 30.63 and the standard deviation was 5.19 during post-test which indicate that the students’ competences in environmental management was developed. Finally, the study recommends that it important to consider society priorities in instructional lesson materials by collaborating with other education stakeholder to ensure effectiveness in designing and implementation of curriculum materials ItemTeachers' participation in decision-making as a motivational factor in teaching: a case of Tanzanian public secondary schools(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Azaliwa, ElimilikiThis study was carried out to assess teachers' participation in decision-making as a motivational factor in teaching in Tanzanian public secondary schools. To achieve objective, three specific objectives were composed. These are to assess the patterns of teachers' participation in decision-making as a motivational factor in teaching, to examine the perceptions of teachers about decision-making as a motivational factor in teaching in public secondary schools and to assess the extent of teachers’ participation in decision-making and their motivation in teaching in public secondary schools. A mixed research approach guided the study, and concurrent mixed methods design was employed in this study. Two theories also guided this study: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory and Herbert Simon's Theory of Rational Decision-Making. Data were collected through interviews, documentary reviews and questionnaires. The study involved 122 respondents where 110 were teachers, 5 heads of schools, 5 ward education officers, 1 district education officer and 1 district teachers’ service commission officer. The findings revealed that there are patterns such as staff, discipline, departmental, School Management Team, and OPRAS patterns at the school level which used to involve teachers in decision-making while at the district and ward level, the patterns are different. The findings also indicated that most teachers participated in decisions and have been motivated in teaching. Therefore, there is a significant association between the participation of teachers in decision-making and motivation in teaching. The study concludes that participation of teachers in decision-making is a key factor for motivating them in teaching. The study recommends that the challenges encountered by teachers have to be addressed by district and zonal quality assurers to help teaching and learning improve. ItemStrengthening fresh water conservation skills among students in public secondary schools: a lesson study approach(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Msombe, RizickFresh water conservation skills have been observed to be inadequate among young generation, despite fresh water being scarce and important to humankind. This study developed curriculum exemplary materials that could address students missing skills for fresh water conservation skills among secondary school students. This study was conducted in Tukuyu secondary school located at Rungwe district in Mbeya region. Three Geography teachers were involved in this study. Moreover, sixty two Form Two students from Tukuyu secondary school were involved in this study. Quasi-experimental and phenomenographical research designs were employed to generate data through, Syllabus review, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) with teachers, interview with students, pre-test and post-test to students and participant lesson observations. The study used lesson study approach in which teaching involved patterns of variation theory through creating variation for discerning critical aspects of learning fresh water. Meanwhile the findings unveiled that the identified missing skills among students were mainly due to adaptation of conventional way of teaching, associated with inadequate materials for teaching and learning. The findings disclosed that students initially lacked skills for freshwater conservation and was due to the lack of proper understanding of teachers on the objective and competence based curriculum which could foster’s learners to acquire skills. However, after intervention, the results revealed that there was a significant increase of the mean score between pre and post-test. Paired sample t-test result had shown significant different in mean score between the pre-test (0.371) and post-test (0.806). The findings indicated that the exemplary materials were effective in developing skills to students on freshwater conservation. Also, the lesson study approach as the method used to present the materials revealed to be with a very high effect on developing student’s skills for freshwater conservation. The study paved the way on how to identify missing skills and delivering the content in relation to the learning needs. Also, this study served to improve pedagogical content knowledge about water and its types. Thus, the lesson study can be used to address students missing skills in learning for the sake of developing skills for future well utilization of natural resources like freshwater ItemThe role of parental involvement in career choice decisions among students of higher education institutions in Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Ilomo, RuthinaThis study explored the role of parental involvement in career choice decisions among students of higher education institutions in Tanzania. It focused on the parents’ perception on career choice of higher education students. The Social Cognitive Career Theory guided the whole process of data collection and analysis in the study. The study employed a mixed methods research approach using cross sectional design. In the study, there were 113 respondents comprising of parents and students. Moreover, the methods of data collection were semi-structured interviews and questionnaire. Qualitative data were analyzed through content analyzing framework. The quantitative data were analyzed through descriptive analysis by using SPSS version 26. The study explored the perception of parents towards students career choice decisions in higher education institutions in Tanzania. It was revealed that parents had positive perception on students’ career choice decision. However, in some incidents, parents had negative attitudes about students’ career choice decision. With regard to the second objective, which examined the contribution of parents’ socio-economic status towards students' career choice decision in higher education institutions in Tanzania, the study revealed that economic status (money) was the factor which influenced students’ career choice in higher education institutions in Tanzania. This was done through parents paying tuition’s fees, since some of the courses were very expensive to the extent that the low income families could not afford. The findings also revealed that money was being used to finance vocational aspirations. It was also noted that, parent’s prospects in career choice decision were influenced by employment opportunities. In addition, the study revealed that parent’s expectations in career choice among students were challenged by unemployment, indiscipline at work place and labour mobility. In order for students to achieve their career choice the study conclude that the Ministry of Education Science and Technology should devise career orientation programmes that should be implemented from secondary schools up to higher education institutions. Likewise, the Higher Education Students’ Loans Board should give loans to all degree programmes in higher education institutions of learning. This will overcome the tendency of some students opting to study courses that are granted loans by the board but which are not their favourite choices ItemGuidance and counselling services in enhancing academic performance of female students: a case of rural secondary schools in Muleba District, Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2021) William, RhodaThis study intended at exploring on guidance and counselling services in enhancing academic performance among female students at rural secondary schools in Muleba district, Tanzania. The objectives of the study were: to investigate on how counsellors with different qualifications provide guidance and counselling services in secondary schools, to examine the attitude of both teachers and female students towards the contribution of guidance and counselling services in enhancing good academic performance in their studies. Lastly, was to explore the involvement of parents/guardians in providing guidance and counselling practices to their children. Qualitative approach with case study design were adopted to get data from 32 participants comprising of 3 head of schools, 3 academic masters/mistresses, 3 teacher-counsellors and 23 students using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through focus group discussions, document review and interview and analysed through thematic analysis. The results found that; GCSs were significant in enhancing academic performance among female students in rural secondary schools. It was also found that both teachers and students were holding a positive attitude towards guidance and counselling in enhancing academic performance to students. However, the absence of professional trained teacher-counsellors, lack of guidance and counselling facilities, teacher-counsellor workload and lack of clear timetable for guidance and counselling services were leading to poor provision of guidance and counselling services to students in rural secondary schools. Furthermore, minimal involvement of parents in providing guidance and counselling services to their children were seen to hinder the provision of guidance and counselling services to the students in rural secondary schools. Based on the findings, the study recommends that; the government should employ qualified teacher-counsellors, establish guidance and counselling facilities, enhance strong school management support and training to the teacher-counsellors. In the same vein, parents have to be given education on the importance of participating fully in providing guidance and counselling services to their children. This will help to improve the provision of good guidance and counselling services ItemEffectiveness of Internal School Quality Assurance in Teaching and Learning among Public Secondary Schools in Tanzania, A case of Njombe Town Council(The University of Dodma, 2021) Fungilwa, Angelus C.This study explored the effectiveness of the internal school quality assurance system (ISQA) on students’ learning in public secondary schools. The study was guided by two theories: Scientific Management theory and Human Relations Theory. The study employed the qualitative approach with phenomenological research design. It involved 90 teachers, 3 members of the ISQA team, 4 chairpersons of the ISQA team, 3 heads of schools, 1 Ward Education Officer, 1 District Education Officer and 1 District School Quality Assurer, making a total of 103 participants. Data were generated by open-ended questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and reviewing of documents. The results indicated that ISQA system in schools has contributed towards monitoring and evaluation of teaching and learning in secondary schools. It was also found that ISQA has enhanced teachers’ accountability for their teaching including the improved quality of education provision. The results also indicated that ISQ Assuers assisted the heads of schools on issues related to school administration and in building school collective efficacy. It was further found that the majority of teachers had a positive perception on the establishment of the ISQA system in schools and that it was perceived to be a tool for facilitating an improved students’ performance. However, there were few teachers who commented that it was introduced to bulldoze the teachers in their workplaces. It was also found that ISQA teams faced a number of challenges such as lack of training, limited time, teachers’ rigidity and the shortage of teaching and learning materials that hampered effective execution of ISQA programmes. The study concludes that the ISQA system improves the quality provision of education in schools despite the challenges impeding the effective operation of the ISQA activitiess. For effective implementation of the ISQA in secondary schools, teachers need training for them to be able to execute ISQA key responsibilities and the government needs to deploy secondary school teachers including the provision of teaching and learning materials in schools. ItemIncorporating soft skills in managing ordinary level public secondary schools by head of schools in Tanzania: a case study of Ilala Municipal.(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Zacharia, RachalThis study aimed at exploring and authenticating the experience of incorporating soft skills in managing secondary schools in Tanzania. Ilala municipal in Dar es Salaam was used as a case study. The study had three objectives of exploring the conceptualization of soft skills among HoSS and teachers, strategies of developing soft skills and applicability of soft skills in managing secondary schools. This study employed mixed method research approach using exploratory sequential mixed method design. Moreover, the sample size of this study was 220 participants, made up with 5 HoSS, 5 board members, 10 SMTs and 200 teachers and through simple random and purposive sampling procedures; data were gathered through interview, questionnaires and FGD. As a final point, the qualitative data were analyzed through thematic analysis and quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics with the help of SPSS version 20 in order deliver plentiful vision from the participants. For the first objective, the study revealed HoSS understand the concept of soft skills with regard on two perspective management and technology. Further for the second objective, the study revealed that there are eight way of developing soft skills among HoSS and teachers such as trainings, participatory leadership, learning from others, division of labor, work environment, seminars, experiences and through interaction with others. Also, for the third objective study findings revealed that teachers are aware of soft skills such as involvement in decision making, communication skills, problem solving skills, influence team work, leadership skills, conflict management, time management skills, work ethics and adaptability but there is a problem in application of those skills in managing secondary schools. Therefore, based on the study findings HoSS are required to have and develop soft skills in addition to technical skills which will create favorable teaching and learning environment for both students and teachers which will lead to the achievement of educational goals and National Development Goal 2025 ItemEducation stakeholders’ beliefs and expectations on inclusive education in Tanzania primary schools: a case of Dodoma city(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Mnkeni, LazaroThis study investigated the educational stakeholders’ beliefs and expectations on improving inclusive education in Tanzanian primary schools. The study was conducted in primary schools based in Dodoma City. The specific objectives of the study were to: investigate educational stakeholders’ beliefs and expectations on inclusive education; assess the challenges facing the implementation of inclusive education in primary schools, and propose useful interventions for educational stakeholders to effectively participate in improving inclusive education in Tanzania. This study used a mixed method approach which is characterized by the combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods. Data were collected from 135 respondents obtained through simple random sampling, from pupils, parents, district education officers (DEOs), and teachers by using questionnaires and interviews. Quantitative data were analyzed descriptively and presented in terms of tables, frequency, and percentages. Qualitative data were analyzed through theme-content analysis and presented verbatim. The findings of the study have revealed that pupils enrolled in inclusive schools were aware of inclusive education and appreciated the efforts exerted on giving education to pupils with disabilities. Even the teachers, parents, and district educational officers felt that inclusive education allowed the pupils with disabilities to interact and understand or be understood by the teachers, other pupils, relatives, and neighbors. Again, the research findings have uncovered inclusive primary schools as experiencing serious challenges associated with limited special education needs’ qualified teachers, lack of in-service training, overcrowded classes, insufficient teaching and learning materials, unfriendly infrastructure including poor transport roads, unfriendly sanitation systems, inadequate classrooms, and school facilities. On top of that, generally negative attitude from the parents, teachers, fellow pupils, and some community members towards education for pupils with disabilities was another challenge. Learning in inclusive classes was generally seen as a heavy task for pupils with disabilities. There must be efforts to ensure that the regular classes have special teachers, special teaching and learning resources. Lack of supportive infrastructures for pupils with disabilities poses great challenges for education stakeholders’ beliefs and expectations towards inclusive education in primary schools. Moreover, the findings showed that useful intervention to strengthen educational stakeholders’ beliefs and expectations towards IE includes ensuring the adequacy of inclusive schools, plans, and improving teaching and learning environment. That is, need for a supportive environment for pupils with disabilities to ensure friendly teaching and learning atmosphere with the elimination of discrimination in a school setting. The study concludes that more government interventions are needed to enhance inclusive education for students’ diverse needs, families, educators, and community members. Recommendations for improvement in planning and school environment for effective inclusive education have been given. ItemImplementation of competence based curriculum in developing pre-reading skills among pre-primary children in Tanzania: the case of Songea Municipality(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Ally, Maria JohnDespite many initiatives taken by the government, as well as Non-Governmental Organizations to eradicate illiteracy in Tanzania; yet large proportion of pupils face the problem inability to read among primary pupils in Tanzania. There is a problem of pre-reading skills among primary children in Tanzania. This study explored the implementation of competence-based curriculum in developing pre- reading skills among pre-primary children in Tanzania. The study was guided by the following research objectives: first, to examine the methods and strategies used by pre-primary teachers in enhancing competence based curriculum in developing pre-reading skills. Second, to explore teachers‟ perception on the roles of implementation of CBC in developing reading skills among pre-primary children. Third, to identify factors affecting pre-primary teachers in implementation of competence based curriculum to pre-primary children. The study employed a phenomenological research design in attempting to understand people‟s perceptions and perspectives on implementation of CBC in developing pre- reading skills among pre-primary children. A maximum variation was involved to select a sample of ten (10) pre-primary teachers, eight (8) head teachers, and one (1) quality assurer, three (3) ward educational officers, and one (1) District educational officers which made twenty-three participants, were engaged in the study. Data were collected through classroom observations, semistructured interviews, and documentary reviews. Data were analysed through themes and sub-themes to generate the findings. The analysis of the data obtained revealed that, pre-primary teachers were using pictures, songs, play, dance and talking classrooms. Moreover, analysis about teachers‟ perceptions on the roles of implementation of CBC revealed that, pre-primary teachers were using CBC because they believed that CBC would develop curiosity, facilitate memorizing capabilities and develop the ability to use the prior experiences to pre-primary children. Furthermore, most of the pre-primary teachers were found to understand the role of CBC however, they were not implementing it to pre-primary children due to the large number of children in the classrooms. In addition to that, the findings revealed that, there were some factors affecting pre-primary teachers on the implementation of CBC. These were such as; lack of training on how to implement CBC, inadequate of infrastructures, large number of children, low cooperation from pre-primary children parents and insufficient of teaching and learning materials. Based on these findings, the study recommends that the Government provide training for the available preprimary teachers, prepare colleges special for pre- primary teachers to recruit more teachers and to improve the infrastructures. In addition, the study recommends that teachers increase their efforts in exploring more strategies relevant for pre-primary children to further promote the development of learners in pre-reading skills ItemStrategies used by heads of schools in enhancing teachers’ commitment in public secondary schools: a case of Masasi district, Tanzania(The University of Dodma, 2021) Livigha, GoodluckThis study intended to investigate the strategies used by heads of schools in enhancing teachers’ commitment in public secondary schools. The study had three specific objectives which were: to examine the specific activities done by heads of schools in enhancing the teachers’ commitment, to identify the challenges faced by heads of schools when enhancing the teachers’ commitment, and to determine the outcome of enhancing the teachers’ commitment. The research was conducted at Masasi district in Mtwara region of Tanzania. The study employed a descriptive case study design. It also employed a qualitative research approach whereby 20 participants took part whereby 10 were teachers, 5 heads of schools and 5 ward education officers. The participants were selected through a purposive sampling technique, whereby the criteria were based on gender, age, teaching experiences and education qualifications. The theory X and theory Y underpinned this study. The data were collected through interview, focused group discussion and documentary review. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the obtained data in which themes were created from the participants’ views and opinions. The findings of this study revealed that rewarding teachers, creation of conducive working environment, giving support to the teachers, delegating powers to teachers, and involving teachers in decision-making were strategies used by heads of schools in enhancing teachers’ commitment. Also, it was found that the heads of schools were facing inadequate financial resources, political interference, poor welfare of teachers, lack of management skills, and poor communication between teachers. Furthermore, it was revealed that enhancing the teachers’ commitment can lead to the improvement of learning outcomes, promotion of the teaching profession and promotion of the teaching performance. It was concluded that, the heads of schools had significant strategies to use in enhancing the teachers’ commitment in the public secondary schools. Basing on these findings, the study recommends that the government should provide relevant knowledge and skills relating to school management to the heads of schools, it should finance its schools so as to meet the intended plans and goals, frequent seminars and workshops should be provided to the heads of schools so as to improve their creativity in managing the schools. ItemPre-primary education curriculum implementation in kongwa district: teachers’ concerns for improved practices(The University of Dodma, 2021) Mabwe, RehemaThis study investigated the pre-primary education curriculum implementation in Kongwa district: teachers’ concerns for improved practices in selected public primary schools in Kongwa district, Tanzania. The study was guided by the following objectives: challenges teachers face in the implementation of the pre-primary education curriculum, the causes of challenges teachers face in the implementation of the pre-primary education curriculum, and the effective strategies teachers can use for effective implementation of the pre-primary education curriculum in Kongwa district. The research was guided by Vygotsky's historical-cultural activity theory and employed a qualitative research approach informed by a phenomenology research design. The study employed semi-structured interviews, observation and documentary reviews as methods of data collection. A total of 30 informants made of 18 pre-primary teachers and 12 head teachers were purposely involved in the study from 12 public primary schools. The Interpretive Phenomenology Analysis (IPA) data analysis approach was used. The findings indicate that effective implementation of the pre-primary education curriculum is challenged with inadequate teaching and learning materials, limited in-service training, shortage of classrooms, overcrowded classrooms, and low cooperation from the community. High enrolment due to the implementation of the fee-free educational policy strategy and limited community awareness were mostly identified as causes of prevailing challenges. The analysis reveals several strategies pre-primary teachers could use to improve the implementation of a pre-primary curriculum. These strategies included the use of learning strategies putting the learner at the centre, continued provision of in-service training to teachers, raising community awareness, and ensuring schools are resourced with teaching and learning materials. The research concludes that the pre-primary education curriculum implementation is faced with myriad challenges impacting teachers’ initiatives in its practice. It is therefore recommended that all key education stakeholders join hands for collective efforts to address them for effective implementation of the curriculum and child preparation for primary schooling. ItemParents ‘involvement in sustaining school-based feeding programme in Tanzania: a case of public secondary schools in Namtumbo district(The University of Dodma, 2021) Mohamed, ShafiThis study investigated parents' involvement in sustaining school-based feeding programme in public secondary schools in Tanzania. Epstein’s model of parental involvement was used as theoretical framework. The study was guided by three specific objectives namely, to explore motives toward parental involvement in supporting SBFP in public secondary schools, to identify ways through which parents are involved in sustaining SBFP in public secondary schools and lastly was to examine challenges facing parental involvement in sustaining SBFP. The study involved 94 participants, comprised of 60 students, six teachers, three heads of school, 3 WEOs, 18 parents, and 3 SBFP chairpersons. The study employed mixed method research approach in collection of data; again, data was collected using questionnaire, interviews, FGD, observation, and documentary review quantitative data were descriptively analyzed with the help of SPSS while qualitative data were analyzed through the thematic analysis. The study findings unveiled that, parent’s involvement in supporting school-based feeding programme had been motivated by various motives such as reducing disturbance for students to travel for long distance to and from school to get lunch at home, improving student attendance, improving the performance of the students, and improving students’ health. The study found that, there were various ways through which parents were being involved to sustaining SBFP, which includes ways related to material support, ways related to managerial support and lastly ways related to financial support. Furthermore, the study findings show that the involvement of parents in SBFP faces a number of challenges such as challenges related to socio-cultural factors, challenges related to policy, challenges related to poor economic-base of the parents, and challenges related to institutional factors. The study recommended that the government through the district council should impose by-laws to all public secondary schools to encourage parents to participate in supporting the SBFP. In addition, the government through the President’s Office Regional Administrative and Local Government (PoRALG) should improve the school infrastructure such as kitchens, stores, water supply and to encourage parents to support the SBFP by contributing raw food and cash to support the programme for the benefit of their children and the community at large.