ItemEffect of external environment on market orientation and performance of small and medium tourism enterprises in Zanzibar(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Haji, Ashura MrishoThis study was set to assess the effects of the market orientation on the performance of small and medium tourism enterprises in Zanzibar. Specifically, the study examined the influence of the external environment on market orientation, the influence of the external environment on small and medium tourism enterprises performance. The study also analysed the influence of the market orientation on small and medium tourism enterprises performance and determined the confounding effect of the external environment on the relationship between market orientation and small and medium tourism enterprises performance. The Resources Based-Theory, Dynamic Capability Theory, Industrial Organisation Theory and Balance Scorecard Model were used to generate aconceptual framework that indicates the relationship between study variables. The study was conducted in the Urban West and South Region of Unguja, Zanzibar. It employed a cross-sectional survey coupled with convergence mixed-methods. Simple random sampling and purposive sampling were employed to get the respondents of the study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data from 456 managers while a semi-structured interview was used to collect qualitative data from eight managers. A balance score card was used to measure performance. The data collected were validated and tested for its reliability through confirmatory factor analysis and analysed by using structural equation modelling. On the other hand, thematic analysis was used to analyse qualitative data. The findings show that market turbulence and competitive forces are significantly related to market orientation. Technological turbulence does not influence market orientation. Further, the external environment significantly influence customers’ performance measures, internal business process and financial measures but does not influence learning and growth measures. The study discovered that the external environment is the confounder of the relationship between market orientation and small and medium tourism enterprises performance when performance is measured by customers’ perspectives, internal business process and financial measures. The findings implied that small and medium tourism enterprises seeking to improve their performance need to be market-oriented and scan the environment to formulate a fit strategy that can boost their performance. The study recommends the government to build capacity of SMTEs’ managers to enhance market orientation capabilities and managers ought to invest in technology to improve organisational performance. ItemThe impact of financial liberalization on economic growth in Tanzania(The University of Dodma, 2021) Hungu, Obed AbelThis study aimed at examining the impact of financial liberalization on economic growth in Tanzania. The importance of this study stem on the fact that previous studies on the topic are of divided conclusions. Besides, the country under study has yet achieved the satisfactory economic growth that translates into poverty reduction among its citizens. As such, the study analysed short run and long run effect, possible economic pathways, and conditional factors of the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth in Tanzania. The study employed time series data from 1970 to 2017 to explore the topic. Data were collected from Bank of Tanzania, National Bureau of Statistics, World Bank, and United Nations Conference on Trade and Development. The study was guided by time series design. Augmented Dicky-Fuller and Phillips-Perron were used for unit root test, Bounds Approach for co-integration, Error Correction Model and PROCESS Macro were applied for estimation of the study objectives. The findings show that there is a long run effect of financial liberalization on economic growth in Tanzania. The study also revealed that only one pathway (access to finance) and conditional factor (government size) actively enhances the growth of economy in Tanzania. This indicates that financial liberalization in Tanzania is fruitful and augments economic growth. However, its transmission effect through possible economic activities to economic growth is minimal to achieve the growth target. Therefore, the study recommends review of policies of access to finance activity and use of government funds in order to achieve targeted economic growth in Tanzania. The study contributes on literature by employing mediation and moderation analyses, analysing possible economic activities and conditional factors of the finance-growth nexus. Besides, the study synthesized financial and endogenous theories to come up with the possible economic activities through which financial liberalization spurs economic growth. ItemThe link and mismatch between procurement compliance indicators and value for money in Tanzania public procurement(The University of Dodoma, 2021) Matto, Mordecai ChrysostomThe public procurement law in Tanzania requires procuring entities to ensure both compliance and value for money in procurement. However, compliance and value for money audit results for the recent four consecutive years have shown that procuring entities in Tanzania failed to balance compliance with value for money. Similarly, the literature provides mixed results on the link between compliance and value for money. Hence, this study investigated the link and mismatch between procurement compliance indicators and value for money in Tanzania public procurement. To meet the study objectives, the systems theory and public value theory were deployed to guide the study. The study adopted the mixed methods approach and explanatory cross-sectional survey design in the stage of data collection and analysis. Similarly, data were collected using surveys, interviews, and documentary review from 164 procuring entities in Arusha, Dar es Salaam, and Dodoma Regions. The quantitative data were analyzed through Structural Equation Modelling using SPSS and AMOS while qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic approach. The results of this study revealed that compliance indicators are significantly related to value for money. Furthermore, government policy and code of ethics and conduct confound the relationship between compliance indicators and value for money. By implication, procuring entity invests in strengthening compliance indicators and adjusts for government policy and code of ethics and conduct is likely to achieve the best value for money in public procurement. Likewise, it was further revealed that the mismatch between compliance and value for money in Tanzania public procurement is caused by the audit measurement tools and government policy. The study proposed the procurement compliance and value for money management framework which can be adopted by policymakers and procuring entities to achieve the best performance. The study recommends PPRA harmonize the measurement scales used to measure compliance and value for money performance. Finally, although the fact that most of the procuring entities in Tanzania achieve value for money without satisfactory compliance, the present study stresses that the best value for money must be supported with satisfactory compliance ItemContribution of Bushmeat to household food and income and factors influencing household dependence on Bushmeat in western Serengeti(The University of Dodoma, 2020) Manyama, Flora FelixBushmeat is an important source of household (HH) food and income in western Serengeti although information on the frequency of consumption and income earned is unknown due to the illegal nature of the activity. This study was intended to determine the contribution of bushmeat to HHs and factors influencing bushmeat dependence. The study was conducted in three villages (Robanda, Rwamkoma and Kowak) selected purposely based on distances from the western boundary of Serengeti National Park (SNP). Data were obtained through HH questionnaire surveys, dietary recall surveys and observations and recording of bushmeat packages conducted in both the dry (September-October 2017) and wet (April-May 2018) seasons. Data on bushmeat consumption frequencies were collected from 127 schoolchildren and compared that to 150 adults from regular HHs selected randomly. Also snowballing was used to locate hunters and bushmeat traders where 96 respondents were identified. Overall, bushmeat contributes by 15.8% of all meat sources reported but its contribution was more in the closest village (96.3%), declining with distance from SNP (Kruskal-Wallis test; H=454.2; P< 0.001). Bushmeat was consumed more frequently during the dry season (66%) compared to the wet season (34%). Adults on average reported significantly lower bushmeat consumption frequencies than schoolchildren (Wilcoxon test; W=33,526; P=0.003) which imply that children can provide reliable information about the importance of bushmeat in HH consumption than adults. The generalised linear model revealed that bushmeat consumption in HH was significantly influenced by season, distance and consumption of other meat sources (Table 4.3). The contribution of bushmeat to HH income was significantly higher in the closest village than in the intermediate and distant villages (Kruskal-Wallis test; H=24.025; P< 0.001). HH reliance on bushmeat income was negatively associated with age and gender of the HH head and distance to the protected area (PA) boundary. Hence, efforts to reduce illegal hunting should target male-headed HHs close to PA boundary through promoting alternative meat and income sources. ItemThe Impact of fiscal and monetary policies on economic growth and stability in Tanzania(2019) Mwamkonko, Ally MussaThe study analyzed the impact of fiscal and monetary policies on economic growth and stability in Tanzania. The study questioned mechanisms that make one policy more effective than the other and traced efficient way of using these policies; which most prior empirical works did not mention. The study filled this gap in literature by analyzing fiscal adjustments of revenue and spending; comparing effects of money supply and interest rate; and finally deriving an optimal policy – mix. The study used time series data drawn from Bank of Tanzania, World Bank and International Monetary Fund. After the preliminary tests for unit roots and co-integration, the Johansen (ML) procedure was used to jointly estimate co-integrating vectors and error correction model. The study reveals that government spending on physical investment enhances growth and stability; government spending on human capital bolters growth but reduces stability; government spending on consumption retards growth and weakens stability. Also, the study found that government revenue positively relates to growth and stability. It is also evident that while external borrowing enhances growth, internal borrowing reduces it. Moreover, the results show that changes in money supply and interest rates have impact on growth and stability. But, interest rate has more predictable impact than money supply. Furthermore, the study reveals that fiscal and monetary policies affect growth and stability. But, fiscal policy is more effective than monetary policy. Finally, the study found that expansion policy - mix is optimal for Tanzania. To spur growth and stability government has to spend more on investments than consumptions. Also, government has to increase revenue (tax and non-tax) collection. In case of budget deficit, government revenues should be complemented by concessional external borrowing rather than internal borrowing and tied grants. Moreover, BOT has to adopt interest rate based framework instead of monetary aggregate framework. This should go along with widening and stabilizing financial market. Furthermore, government and BOT have to implement fiscal expansion and monetary expansion, respectively. The crossed fiscal and monetary policies cannot ensure growth and stability because monetary policy cannot absorb side effects of fiscal policy in Tanzania. ItemAn assessment of the applicability of servqual and servperf in the higher education context of Tanzania(The University of Dodoma, 2014) Tegambwage, Amani G.SERVQUAL and SERVPERF are the most widely used instruments to measure service quality across various service sectors. However, these scales have been designed and successfully used in the retail sector with a commercial perspective; hence little is known about their applicability to the higher education sector. In addition, there is much debated controversy in the extant literature about the superiority of these models and their dimensionality across different settings and contexts. This study was designed to (a) examine the applicability of SERVQUAL and SERVPERF in higher education, (b) compare their measurement ability, and (c) examine the causal relationship between perceived service quality, customer satisfaction, and recommend intentions. The study was conducted at two public universities in Tanzania. The SERVQUAL and the SERVPERF were modified and then administered personally to 250 randomly selected students from each of the two universities under study. Structural equation modeling was used to perform the analysis. The study found out that a two factor structure of both the SERVQUAL and the SERVPERF, as modified for this study, is appropriate for higher education. However, the modified SERVPERF performed better with respect to psychometric properties, while the modified SERVQUAL possessed superior diagnostic power. This study recommends that, when the interest is only to assess the overall service quality, the modified SERVPERF should be preferred. On the other hand, when the interest is to identify service quality shortfalls for improvement, the modified SERVQUAL should be employed. ItemInfluence of attitudes and personal values on willingness to remain in rural areas among human resource for health in Tanzania: a case of Kigoma and Tabora regions(The University of Dodoma, 2018) Jaffu, RichardThis study examined the influence of attitudes and personal values on willingness to remain in rural areas among Human Resource for Health (HRH) in Tanzania. The study was conducted in Kigoma and Tabora regions as they have the lowest HRH densities, where, two districts were selected from each region. The study employed explanatory cross-sectional survey using data collected in one point of time. The study involved 230 participants who responded to questionnaire and 11 key informants who were interviewed. The collected data were processed and analysed, where, qualitative data were analysed using Framework Analysis, while quantitative data were subjected to Descriptive Statistics and Logistic Regression model. The findings of the study showed that, HRH in rural areas have positive attitudes towards rural job posts. It was also revealed that, all personal values in Schwartz‘s Taxonomy of Values are common among HRH in rural areas. The study also discovered that, willingness of HRH to remain in rural areas is influenced by their attitudes towards the job itself and sense of community. The study also found out that, power, self-direction and security values influence willingness to remain in rural areas among HRH. The findings of study imply that, in order to enhance willingness of HRH to remain in rural areas, improvements with respect to job rotation, availability of drugs and medical equipment, as well as orientation to new recruits are required. On top of that, it entails establishment of mechanisms with respect to identification, production and allocation of HRH who have high scores of power, self-direction and security values. ItemPerformance of young entrepreneurs in Tanzania: A case of business incubators in higher learning institutions(The University of Dodoma, 2016) Matotola, SalumThe performance of young entrepreneurs in Tanzania is faced by an inadequate access to business support services (BSS). This study examined the influence of business incubators on the performance of young entrepreneurs in higher learning institutions in Tanzania. The study was conducted in Dar es Salaam and Morogoro regions where the two universities business incubation centers, (i.e. the University of Dar es Salaam and Sokoine University) were purposively selected. Incubatees were selected randomly and the cross sectional research design was adopted. A total number of 30 incubatees were surveyed and two (2) incubation managers were interviewed. The questionnaires and interview guides were used for data collection, which subsequently was analyzed using SPSS version 20. Findings identified five BSS offered by business incubators to their incubatees. These BSS are marketing and business management, networking, accounting and financial management, facilitation on access to finance and mentoring and coaching. The study also has revealed that, there is a significant association between BSS and motivation of young entrepreneurs to start new business. Furthermore, their motivation accounts significant contribution on performance of young entrepreneurs. The findings also recorded non-significant influence of BSS on performance of young entrepreneurs, unless moderated by motivation. The study recommended a need for putting more emphasis on business incubators, specifically on offered BSS to be able to enhance the performance of young entrepreneurs.