The male circumcision: the oldest ancient procedure, its past, present and future roles

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Circumcision, a surgical removal of male prepuce has existed throughout human history, and it appears it shall exist until humanity ends. During its entire existence, there have been changing reasons or indications from cultural, traditional, religious and currently medical, and it has vehemently been criticized by some individuals for different reasons and in different countries. Emergency of new diseases particularly Human Immunodeficient virus (HIV) has brought the ancient procedure back on spot light, this has come as a result of recent studies which have demonstrated that it does not only reduces significantly the rate of HIV infection, as well as penile cancer and cervical cancer. This has lead to massive male circumcision campaigns in areas with low prevalence of circumcision. On the other hand the socio-cultural and sexual aspects of male circumcision have been studied but often ignored. This article will therefore increase awareness of male circumcision and the increasing roles with time, recommend up scaling of medical male circumcision and possible safe circumcision training to tradition circumcisers.
Abstract. Full text article available at
Male circumcision, Socio-culture, Circumcision, Human Immunodeficient virus, HIV, HIV infection, Penile cancer
Mwashambwa, M. Y., Mwampagatwa, I. H., Rastagaev, A., & Gesase, A. P. (2013). The male circumcision: the oldest ancient procedure, its past, present and future roles. Tanzania Journal of Health Research, 15(3).