Sensory properties, preference mapping and shelf life stability of linear programmed quelea meat based instant complementary food for children aged 6–23 months in Tanzania

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Background: Linear programming has been reported to be a good technique that can be used to develop and optimize complementary foods to curb children’s malnutrition. Despite some studies using it to develop and assess the nutritional quality of linear programmed instant complementary foods based on high proteinous red-billed quelea bird meat, information on the sensory and shelf life stability of these foods is limited in the country. Objective: The objective of this study was to develop and assess the sensory properties, preference mapping and shelf life of the developed and optimized quale birds meat-based complementary flour and porridge. Methods: Four formulations; control containing birds meat only, banana mixed with meat (Banana_meat), potatoes mixed with meat (potatoes_meat) and rice mixed with meat (rice_meat) were developed by mixing with other ingredients and extruded separately using a barrel extrude to get flour. The extruded flours were assessed for shelf life and also used to develop porridge samples for sensory properties, consumer acceptance and preference mapping analyses using standard methods. Results: There were significant (p < 0.05) differences in mean intensity scores between the formulation with potatoes mixed with meat samples having higher colour (7.5 ± 1.5), aroma (7.3 ± 1.6), viscosity (5.3 ± 3.0) and smoothness (7.65.3 ± 2.5) values than other samples with respective lower values of 4.4 ± 2.1–6.5 ± ± 0.6–6.4 ± 2.4), 4.8 ± 0.2–5.2 ± 1.8 and 2.7 ± 0.6–6.3 ± 2.3. Rice mixed with meat sample had significantly highest whiteness (4.5 ± 1.5) and sweetness (7.5 ± 1.9) intensities scores while the control meat only samples had significantly highest oiliness intensity scores (5.0 ± 1.4) compared to other samples. Moreover, the potatoes mixed with meat sample was the most acceptable formulation (7.7 ± 0.3) compared to other samples with aroma, smoothness sweetness, colour and viscosity attributes being the main drivers for consumer liking of complementary porridge samples. The shelf life study revealed that the overall acceptability scores of complementary flour samples decreased progressively with storage days with the longest predicted shelf life of 140 days observed in rice mixed with meat sample followed by potatoes mixed with meat with 48 days and the shortest shelf life of 23.7 days in control samples. Conclusion: This suggests that quelea bird meat could be combined with cereal, tubers, and other minor ingredients like vegetables, optimized using the linear programming technique and extruded into complementary instant flour and porridge for children between the ages of 6 and 23 months with long shelf lives, appealing sensory properties, and consumer acceptance, respectively. Hence, it is advised to use the method and consume the developed formulations.
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Linear programming, Sensory analysis, Quelea, Quelea bird meat, Sensory properties, Quelea bird's meat, Children’s malnutrition, Complementary food, Malnutrition
Ngume, L. S., Katalambula, L., Munyogwa, M., & Mongi, R. J. (2022). Sensory properties, preference mapping and shelf life stability of linear programmed quelea meat based instant complementary food for children aged 6–23 months in Tanzania. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 10, 100412.