Journal Articles


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    Determinants of digitalization and digital divide in Sub-Saharan African economies: a spatial Durbin analysis
    (Elsevier BV, 2021-11) Myovella, Godwin; Karacuka, Mehmet; Haucap, Justus
    The aim of this paper is to analyse the determinants for digital divide in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by considering inequalities in internet use and broadband subscriptions. The study considers 41 countries in the region which are geographically linked, and it allows for spatial interdependence. It also accounts for differences in demographic characteristics as well as social, political and economic infrastructure which affect ICT access and use. Globally, about half of the world’s population is connected to the internet whereas the remaining half, i.e. about 3.8 billion people, are not (yet) connected. The problem is more severe in developing countries compared to developed countries; it is said to be unsatisfactory in SSA compared to other countries. We apply a spatial panel analysis using the spatial Durbin model (SDM) specifications for 451 observations from 2006 to 2016. Our estimation results show that there is a strong spatial interdependence among SSA, implying that internet access and broadband subscriptions in one country are affected by internet access and broadband subscriptions in another country, most likely due to spillover effects. Our results reveal that GDP per capita, gross capital formation, political stability, regulatory efficacy and electricity infrastructure directly affect the digital divide. Moreover, GDP per capita, population growth, government consumption, trade openness, and electricity infra structure also indirectly affect the digital divide through spillover effects. Regarding policy im plications we suggest that SSA governments should work closer together in ensuring internet openness and to increase the level of coordination between their countries in order to ensure digital inclusion in their countries.
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    The context in conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs: a royal road to health service utilization to the poor?
    (Taylor & Francis, 2023) Rukiko, Massami Denis; Mwakalobo, Adam Ben Swebe; Mmasa, Joel Johnson
    This study addresses the challenges facing Conditional Cash Transfer Programs (CCT) by investigating whether recipients are satisfied with health services and how contextual factors affect the utilization of health services. The study used binary logistic regression to determine households’ satisfaction with health facility services and was guided by the theory of change and expectation disconfirmation theory, with independent variables being the contextual factors. Generally, 68.66% of health facility service recipients are satisfied, compared to 31.34% who are not. At 95% confidence interval, an increase in household head education and house hold members is likely to increase satisfaction with health facility services, while service delays and beliefs in traditional medications are likely to negatively affect satisfaction to around 30% or more. The study calls for constant and continual collaboration between CCT program designers and implementers and health facility service providers, who have a significant role to play in reducing service delays. Moreover, it emphasizes the necessity for contextual factors to be considered in promoting health utilization, which is at the heart of CCT program health conditionality compliance. The study’s outcome highlights the need for additional efforts to be focused on the design and implementation of the CCT program, particularly in improving contextual factors, which are often given less attention.
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    Determinants of smallholder women farmers access to informal credit in Tanzania – a case of Singida and Chamwino districts
    (The University of Dodoma, 2017) Mmasa, Joel Johnson
    The study analyzed level and determinants of women farmers’ access to informal credit in Singida and Chamwino Districts, Tanzania. The study described socio-economic characteristics of the women farmers who accessed microcredit from informal sources; determined level of access to informal micro-finance; and determined socio-economic factors that influenced access to informal micro-finance. Primary data were collected from one hundred (100) women farmer informal credit participants using multi-stage random sampling technique. The data were analysed using three techniques namely; likert scoring and descriptive statistics, and probit regression estimation. The finding reveals that women farmers had farm size of between 2.3 and 2.4 acres. Majority 94.4% of the respondents had no contact with extension agents and 72% of interviewed respondents had formal education with 72% of them married. There were relatively higher levels of access to loans from Village Community Banks (VICOBA) compared to other informal credit sources. Probit regression estimate showed that farming experience and gross monthly income exerted positive significant influences at varied critical levels. It was found that interest rate charged exerted negative significant influences at varied critical levels. Policies should be made to forge strong linkages between informal and formal financial institutions to ensure that agricultural credit are channeled from formal financial institutions to women farmers through recognized informal credit arrangements. The synergy from such linkage will increase women farmers’ productivity
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    Marketing services for choice of market channels among sesame smallholder farmers in Tanzania: the moderating effect of agricultural marketing co-operative societies
    (MoCU, 2021) Mhagama, Joseph K.; Mmasa, Joel J.; Ismail, Ismail J.
    The study examined the influence of marketing services on choice of marketing channel when moderated by agricultural marketing co-operative societies. It employed a cross-sectional research design, whereas a sample of 392smallholder sesame farmers was randomly drawn through probability sampling techniques. Data were collected using a survey questionnaire and analysed using the Generalized Structural Equation Modelling Approach (GSEM). The study found that market services positively influence the choice of marketing channel when moderated by agricultural marketing co-operative societies among smallholder sesame farmers. It was found that the selection of proper marketing channels improved among members of agricultural marketing co-operative societies than non-members. The study recommends training to be given to non-members regarding the importance of agricultural marketing co-operatives societies as well as strengthening co-operatives by enhancing marketing services.
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    Motivation as a potential gear towards business establishment by young entrepreneurs incubated in higher learning institutions business incubators in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2019) Matotola,Salum; Bengesi, Kenneth
    Business establishment, specifically by fresh graduates and other young entrepreneurs in Tanzania, is faced by an inadequate access to business support services (BSS). This paper empirically analyzes the presence of motivation as a potential gear on starting new businesses by incubated young entrepreneurs. A total number of 30 incubatees from two universities business incubation centers, (i.e. the University of Dar es Salaam and Sokoine University) were surveyed and two incubation managers were interviewed. The findings indicate that there was a significant association between motivation and BSS (p<0.05) and Cramer’s V=0.136). There was also a strong association between motivation and marketing and business management (p<0.05, Cramer’s V=0.507); motivation and mentoring and coaching (p<0.05, Cramer’s V=0.676). This implies that marketing and business management (factor 1) and mentoring and coaching (factor 2) motivated young entrepreneurs to start new businesses. The more marketing and business management skills together with mentorship and coaching were extended to young entrepreneurs, the more motivation was imparted to young entrepreneurs to start new businesses.
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    Impacts of artisanal fishing to the livelihoods of small scale fishing communities in lake Victoria in Ukerewe district, Tanzania
    (International Journal of Research in Chemistry and Environment, 2012) Kulwijila, Mary; Masanyiwa, Zacharia S.; Namwata, Baltazar M. L.
    Fisheries play an important role in the livelihoods of riparian communities in Tanzania. However, changes in biodiversity and commercialization of the sector in recent decades have adversely affected fishing communities. Most studies on the sector have focused mainly on the biological and technical aspects and less on the socio-economic impacts of these changes to local communities. This paper analyses the impacts of Nile perch fishery to small scale fishing communities in Lake Victoria using a case of selected villages in Ukerewe district. Specifically, the paper examines profitability of Nile perch fishery to small scale fishing communities and its contribution to household income and non-income poverty reduction in comparison to other fishery. A cross section survey was employed to collect primary data from 140 respondents using a structured questionnaire. Descriptive analysis included the use of means, percentages, and cross tabulation using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Gross margin analysis was used to examine profitability of Nile perch and other fishery to small scale fishing communities. Results show that Nile perch fishery was far more profitable than fishery of other species. Comparison of means using paired T-test indicated that profit from Nile perch fishery significantly exceeds that of other species. Results further indicate that Nile perch contributes significantly to household income by 59% for fishers, 62% for traders and 40% for processors. While more than half of respondents have good quality houses and can afford health services, majority of them are food insecure. It is concluded that Nile perch fishing has an important role in reducing both income and non-income poverty, hence the need to promote more pro-poor policies to improve livelihoods of small scale fisher communities.
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    Socio-economic factors that determine employment in Tanzania: spatial analysis
    (Macrothink Institute, Inc., 2018-01-04) Myovella, Godwin Aloyce
    This paper investigates the socio-economic determinants of Employment in Tanzanian regions. It used the cross-sectional data of 2014 on several variables as this was found to be the most recent dataset in the Tanzania National Bureau of Statistics. Despite the impressive growth rates of 7 percent observed in Tanzania poverty hasn’t been reduced as expected, and employment has been static. The paper applies spatial techniques including spatial lag (SAR), spatial error (SEM) and spatial Durbin models to discover the spatial patterns of employment. SAR model was selected as all the variables, GDP per capita, the number of schools, and health services measured by a number of dispensaries were significant. Also, the direct and indirect effects were conducted and GDP per capita were significant and conforms to the theory. The study concludes that there was some regional dependency on some variables hence spatial approach is appropriate as it avoids biased, inefficient and inconsistent results.
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    Budget deficit and inflation in Tanzania: ARDL bound test approach
    (Pressacademia, 2018-03-30) Myovella, Godwin Aloyce; Kisava, Zakayo Samson
    The study aimed at analyzing the existence of the long run relationship between the government budget deficits and inflation in Tanzania. We used annual time series data for the budget deficit and inflation from 1970 to 2015 sourced from International Monetary Fund (IMF) database. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound test approach Pesaran and Shin (2001) was used. Our results revealed the positive relationship and existence of the long-run relationship between budget deficits and inflation. The coefficient of the speed of adjustment is significant at 5 percent; the whole system can get back to the equilibrium at the speed of adjustment of 72% towards a long run. We suggest the government to adopt measures that would reduce the large budget deficit that has been growing over time. This would be one of the necessary conditions in reducing inflation over time and thereby the high economic growth witnessed can be sustainable.
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    Socio-economic determinants of post-harvest losses in the grape value chain in Dodoma municipality and Chamwino district, Tanzania
    (AJER, 2021) Kulwijila, Mary
    Determinants of post-harvest losses (PHLs) in fruits are categorized into biological and environmental. While these are well known and have been discussed by numerous authors, the socio-economic determinants of PHLs are not empirically known. This study analysed the socio economic determinants of post-harvest losses in grapes along the value chain. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 246 grape farmers and 30 traders who were randomly selected from a list consisting of grape farmers and traders obtained from District Agricultural Irrigation and Cooperative Officers (DAICOs) of the study area. The results from multiple linear regression show that unreliable market, lack of credit, age of grape at harvest, quantity of grapes harvested and experience are the major statistically significant determinants (p<0.05) that influenced the post-harvest losses of grapes at farm level. At traders level, the quantity handled, time grape stay in market before sold and distance from the farm to the market positively and significantly (p<0.05) influenced post-harvest losses of grape. It is concluded that socio-economic determinants greatly influence PHLs of grapes in the study area. Based on the conclusion, the study recommends for interventions by the Government and other stakeholders in grape processing industries to broaden the range of products from grapes through value addition to reduce PHLs and enhance market for grapes. The study recommends further that credits be provided to grape farmers and traders to enable them buy modern post-harvest handling facilities including packaging and storage in order to reduce the losses.
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    Social-economic factors influencing ginger (Zingiber Officinale) productivity among smallholders growers in Tanzania - Case of Same district
    (IISTE, 2017) Mmasa, Joel Johnson; Mhagama, Joseph Kizito
    The study aimed to investigate the Zingiber Officinale influencing ginger productivity among smallholders growers. A cross sectional research design was adopted; the sample size of 251 respondents was obtained through purposive and non-purposive sampling techniques. The study used both quantitative and qualitative methods for data analysis. Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) and Excel software were used to analyze the data. The data revealed that the factors included in the model explain the variation obtained in ginger yield with determination coefficients R2 (adjusted) indicates that 78.3% of the variation in ginger yield obtained by farmers is explained by the variable included in the estimated model. Generally It can thus be concluded that farmer’s education level, the use of fertilizer, land size under ginger production and frequency of contacting extension services had significant contribution to ginger farming and hence productivity. It is recommended that to expand extension services to ensure that smallholder ginger farmers have access to high-yielding ginger seed varieties and improved farm inputs, storage and marketing facilities and encourage ginger farmers to increase land under cultivation. Smallholder farmers own small parcels of land but still cultivate only small portions of it. Smallholder farmers need to be assisted to expand the area under cultivation. This may help transform the current farming system from smallholder farming to larger scale. Hence, it is important to create public awareness on the potential for the ginger crop to contribute to the household income by using labor saving technologies and improved varieties.
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    Heuristic biases and investment decisions: multiple mediation mechanisms of risk tolerance and financial literacy—a survey at the Tanzania stock market
    (Emerald, 2021-11-01) Kasoga, Pendo Shukrani
    The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of heuristic biases on investment decisions through multiple mediation mechanisms of risk tolerance and financial literacy in the Tanzanian stock market. A sample of 316 individual investors in the Tanzanian stock market was obtained through questionnaires. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM). The findings show that financial literacy mediates insignificantly the effects of overconfidence, availability, anchoring and representativeness heuristics on investment decisions. Further, financial literacy does not influence the effect of risk tolerance and investment decisions. Risk tolerance is confirmed as a positive mediator of overconfidence, availability, anchoring and representativeness heuristics in investment decisions. Also, the study shows that overconfidence exerts a stronger influence on investment decisions, followed by availability, representativeness, risk tolerance, anchoring and financial literacy. The study deals with real investors. Therefore, it uses fewer items to measure the constructs in order to avoid respondent bias. Further research could examine the effects of heuristic biases on investment decisions by adding or modifying the items of particular constructs and studying institutional investors. The findings can help individual investors to analyze and evaluate their behavior toward stock selection. Securities institutions can use this research to understand investors’ behavior, evaluate future market trends and provide advice to the investors. Previous studies have examined the impact of heuristics on the investment decisions of individual investors. The unique empirical analysis developed in this paper is that it examines the multiple mediation mechanisms of risk tolerance and financial literacy with respect to heuristic biases and investment decisions in the Tanzanian stock market
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    The effect of logistic services on the watermelon value chain in Tanzania
    (Informa UK Limited, 2017-09-25) Makuya, Victoria; Mpenda, Zenna; Ndyetabula, Daniel
    This article reports on a study that aimed to understand the effects for poverty reduction of the link between logistic services and cost of the watermelon value chain in Rufiji and Mkuranga districts in Tanzania. Structured questionnaires and FGDs were used to collect data from 251 respondents. Findings revealed that transport cost, storage cost, purchase cost, and logistics service have strong significant effect on the watermelon value chain cost. Based on the findings, the study recommended the use of affordable methods of storage, opening agro input shops in villages, and the development of a favourable environment for watermelon businesses, to help reduce chain cost. Cet article rend compte d’une étude qui visait à améliorer les connaissances, relativement à la réduction de la pauvreté, sur les effets du lien entre les services logistiques et les coûts de la chaîne de Valeur de la pastèque dans les districts de Rufiji et Mkuranga en Tanzanie. Des questionnaires structurés et des groupes de discussion thématique ont permis de collecter des données provenant de 251 répondants. Les résultats révèlent que les coûts du transport, du stockage, de l’achat, et les services logistiques, ont des effets significatifs sur la chaîne de Valeur de la pastèque. Prenant en compte ces résultats, les auteurs de l’étude ont recommandé l’utilisation de méthodes de stockage financièrement abordables, l’ouverture de magasins de production agricole dans les villages et le développement d’un environnement favorable au commerce de la pastèque, afin de réduire le coût de la chaîne de valeur. El presente artículo da cuenta de un estudio orientado a comprender los efectos que el vínculo entre los servicios logísticos y el costo de la cadena de valor de la sandía tiene en la reducción de la pobreza existente en los distritos Rufiji y Mkuranga de Tanzania. A efectos de recabar la información pertinente de 251 participantes, se utilizaron cuestionarios estructurados y discusiones en grupos focales. Los hallazgos encontrados al respecto revelan que los costos involucrados en el transporte, almacenamiento, compras y servicios logísticos impactan fuerte y significativamente en el costo de la cadena de valor de la sandía. A partir de tales hallazgos, y para reducir el costo de la cadena, el estudio recomienda el uso de métodos de almacenamiento asequibles, que en las aldeas se establezcan tiendas que Vendan insumos agrícolas y que se impulse un ambiente propicio para la compraventa de sandías.
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    Causality between Agricultural exports and GDP and its implications for Tanzanian economy
    (JEF, 2017) Alam, Fakhre; Myovella, Godwin
    This study examined the causality between agricultural exports and GDP in Tanzania. It employed secondary time series data from 1980 to 2010. The study found evidence in support of a long-run relationship between agricultural exports. Moreover, there is an evidence that agricultural exports Granger-cause GDP growth but not the other way round. Considering the relationship between the two macro-economic variables, the promotion of agricultural exports can be used as a tool to promote economic growth and development in Tanzania. Currently, agriculture sector is constrained by factors, such as poor mechanization, non-tariff barriers, poor infrastructure, poor productive capacity and lack of proper policies to promote agricultural exports. Tanzania can further improve its agricultural exports by improving them, and addressing the problems related to supply side factors, including productive capacities in order to foster robust economic growth and development in the country.
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    Trade openness and economic growth in East African community economies: a panel causality test
    (KSP, 2018) Kisava, Zakayo S.; Myovella, Godwin A.
    In spite of financial liberalization that has been discussed and studied over the past decades, the debate for the East African Community (EAC) still remain open on the relationship between trade openness and economic growth that has a link with trade economic policies. This paper analyzes the relationship by employing the modern methodology of Dumistrescu & Hurlin (2012) Panel Causality test, The Test involved a scope of 46 years from 1970-2016. The empirical finding shows that there is a bidirectional movement (causality) as trade openness increase or relaxed lead to the growth of the economy in the East African Community. The results are supported by the endogenous growth theory that openness increases economic growth. There is a feedback relationship. The main operational implication of these empirical results is that the governments of the East African economies should dismantle barriers to trade to make sure that their intended objective is not ephemeral.
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    Cost efficiency of watermelon production in Tanzania
    (JAAE, 2018) Makuya, V.; Ndyetabula, D.; Mpenda, Z.
    This study was designed to assess the cost efficiency of watermelon production in Rufiji and Mkuranga Districts. Specifically the study determined cost efficiency level of watermelon farms, determined variation in cost efficiency between farms of different size and capital and examined sources of cost inefficiency. Two stage random sampling was used in selecting 200 farmers from the two Districts who were used to collect information required in achieving the major objectives of the study. Cost efficiency (CE) for farms in Mkuranga ranges from 0.10 to 0.99 with the mean CE of 0.73. Results for Rufiji show that the CE for the farms ranges from 0.89 to 0.99 with the mean CE of 0.90. Findings also revealed that farms with small farm size and capital size had higher mean CE than farms with large size and capital size in the study area. As for the sources of cost inefficiency, education level, farm size, capital size and logistic services were found to have significant influence on cost inefficiency. Apparently, these results suggest that watermelon production is generally cost efficient and the efficiency is influenced by capital size and farm size in the selected areas of study. Recommended in this paper is the encouragement of farmers to consider size of capital and farms when producing watermelon to ensure maximized efficiency.
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    Attributes of the internal audit function and effectiveness of internal audit services: evidence from local government authorities in Tanzania
    (Emerald, 2021-08-25) Mahyoro, Athuman Kalokola; Kasoga, Pendo Shukrani
    The purpose of this study is to examine how the level of attributes of the internal audit function relates to the effectiveness of internal audit services in local government authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania. Data have been collected through a survey whereby 510 respondents from LGAs in Tanzania through their Heads of Internal Audit Functions, Internal Auditors and Chairpersons of Audit Committees respond to the questionnaire. The data were subjected to principal component analysis and exploratory factor analysis to reduce the set of items and to provide continuous scores for use in multiple regression analyses. The findings reveal that audit quality; organization setting and auditee attributes have a significant positive influence on the effectiveness of internal audit services in LGAs in Tanzania. The study covered only LGAs in Tanzania. Future research in this field should address the gaps identified in the study. This paper highlights areas that need management attention on the improvement of the effectiveness of internal audit units. This paper contributes to the literature of both internal auditing and management studies by linking the level of attributes of internal audit function which are audit quality, organization setting, auditee attributes and effectiveness of internal audit services in Tanzania
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    An assessment of over-indebtedness among microfinance institutions’ borrowers: the Tanzanian perspective
    (Informa UK Limited, 2021-01-01) Kasoga, Pendo Shukrani; Tegambwage, Amani Gration; Tamer Elshandidy
    The introduction of microfinance institutions is viewed as the best alter native source of financial services for low-income earners as a means to raise their income and reduce poverty. However, empirical research has indicated that the majority of microfinance institutions’ borrowers are over-indebted. Over indebtedness has negative consequences for debtors, creditors, and for the economy as a whole. Since over-indebtedness is a context-specific phenomenon, it lacks universally accepted indicators. This study aims to validate indicators of over indebtedness and examine the situation of over-indebtedness among micro borrowers in the context of Tanzania. A survey of 535 micro-borrowers was con ducted using a semi-structured questionnaire. Descriptive, thematic, and logistic regression techniques were employed for data analysis. Findings show that debt-to income ratio, multiple borrowing, and delinquency have a positive and significant effect on over-indebtedness. Further, findings indicate that over-indebted micro borrowers in Tanzania spend 75% or more of monthly income on servicing debts; are in the state of delinquency; are unable to meet basic needs due to loan repayment expenditure, have three or more credit commitments, and are in delin quency. To reduce over-indebtedness and hence poverty among micro-borrowers,
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    Grape value chain mapping in Dodoma region, Tanzania
    (IISTE, 2018) Kulwijila, Mary; Makindara, Jeremia; Laswai, Henry
    Understanding value chain actors, relationships, opportunities and constraints are crucial in determining the contribution of a commodity to economic development. However, one critical component that has escaped the attention of researchers is the link between these constraints with post-harvest losses of food crops along the chains. The study mapped grape value chain in Dodoma region. Specifically, the study sought to: (1) map linkages between actors, activities and flow of the product in the grape value chain and (2) analyze pre- and post harvest constraints contributing to grape losses. A cross-sectional research design was used to collect data from 240 farmers and 30 traders which were randomly selected. Descriptive statistics, multiple responses and sub sector analysis were used to analyze the data collected. Results indicated that the key actors in grape value chain were input suppliers, producers, processors, wholesalers, retailers and consumers. Relationship among actors was very weak because no farmers and traders associations were identified. The major constraints along the value chain that contribute to grape losses were high production and transport costs, poor extension services, limited access to marketing information, inadequate market access, lack of credit, poor knowledge on post harvest handling, poor roads, inappropriate post-harvest technologies and spoilage of the commodity. It is concluded that, grape value chain is hampered by both pre and post-harvest constraints that greatly contribute to post-harvest losses and addressing these constraints could improve value chain and reduce the losses. The study recommends government intervention to subsidize grape inputs and infrastructure development including feeder roads, processing and storage technologies for grape actors to benefit from various activities and reduce post harvest losses. Furthermore, the study recommends provision of extension services, credit facilities and establishment of grape board which could oversee marketing of grapes to reduce problems associated with low grape selling price to growers.
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    Factors that influences consumption of processed sweet Potato products in Tanzania
    (Sciencedomain International, 2015-01-10) Mmasa, Joel.; Mlambiti, Melchior
    The general objective of this study was to describe a socio-economic factor that influences consumption of processed sweet potato products. The study was cross sectional in design and was conducted in Shinyanga and Mwanza regions. The study employed individual interviews, focused group discussions, review of relevant practical documents and discussions from a total of 50 surveyed households. The data collected was summarized using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) windows versions 18.0, excel and content analysis.The survey revealed that two factors mostly influences one to consume processed sweet potato were attractive packaging (51.0%) and nutritional value (34.7%). Other factors mentioned included; taste (95.0%), freshness (80.8%), shelf life (85.8%), texture (57.5%), economy (price) (57.5%), Nutritional factor (72.5%) and color (50.8%).
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    Government expenditure and economic growth nexus: wagner’s law or Keynesian hypothesis for Tanzania?
    (AJOL, 2016) Paul, Fintan; Furahisha, Godlove
    This study investigates the validity of Wagner’s law and Keynesian hypothesis of the long run relationship between government expenditure and economic growth in Tanzania using annual time series data from 1978 to 2014. The data series were tested for stationarity using Phillips-Perron unit root test and the results revealed that they were all stationary and integrated of order one I(1). The Johansen test of cointegration revealed that there are cointegrating vectors in the system which indicates the existence of long-run equilibrium relationship among the variables. The Granger causality test was performed within vector error correction model and the results revealed strong support for both Wagner’s law and Keynesian hypothesis when government expenditure was taken at its aggregate level. At the disaggregated levels, the results depict that recurrent expenditure and development expenditure from foreign sources promote economic growth hence supporting the Keynesian hypothesis. Wagner’s law was only supported in one instance where causality runs from economic growth to development expenditure from domestic sources. These results highlight the need for policy makers to direct development expenditure from domestic sources to sectors that stimulate economic growth.