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    Impact of structural economic transformation on government revenue generation in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mwijage, Urbanus
    The key aim of this dissertation was to analyze the impact of structural economic transformation on government revenue generation in Tanzania. The specific objectives of the study aimed to examine the pattern of structural economic transformation in relation to the trend of government revenue from 1966 to 2020 in Tanzania; to investigate the effect of structural economic transformation on government revenue in Tanzania, and to analyze the causality between structural economic transformation and government revenue. The study used a co-integrating vectors and error correction model to analyze the time series data from 1966-2020.The results showed that structural economic transformation has negative impact on government revenue generation in Tanzania. The results however showed that the pattern of the structural economic transformation in Tanzania has been moving from more productive sectors to less productive sectors. The study showed that the direction of causality is from structural economic transformation to government revenue. The study revealed that Gross Domestic Product and inflation had a significant impact on government revenue generation in Tanzania. Based on the findings, the study suggests that policy makers should formulate policies that favour the increase and performance of industries as well as agriculture to change the patterns that have been observed in the economy of Tanzania. Likewise, the government should avoid negative inflation and control inflation at a single digit inflation which will eventually result into increase of its revenues.
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    Tax revenue generation in Tanzania: implications for private domestic investment
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Kayange, Rehema Mingson
    The primary objective of the study is to examine at the influence of tax revenue generation on Tanzanian private domestic investment. Tanzanian taxation remains characterized by complicated tax structures that discourage private domestic investment, explaining why it has been relatively low with a mixed tendency. Tanzania has not yet played a substantial role in large-scale investment efforts, other from fiscal policy modifications. The study obtained yearly time series data from the TRA (Tanzania Revenue Authority) website and the BOT from 1998 to 2020. Initial tests are conducted for multi-collinearity, heteroscedasticity, and co-integrating vectors lag length selection and unit roots, The ECM was then used to explain the long-run and short-run associations. Previous research investigating the association between tax revenue generation and private domestic investment produced contradictory findings. As a result, the study investigates the effects of corporate income tax, value-added tax, excise tax, and import tariffs on Tanzanian private domestic investment. The results of the Error Correction Model revealed that, in the long term, corporate income tax had a positive effect on private domestic investment, but VAT had a negative effect. Furthermore, whereas import tariffs have a positive and large influence on private domestic investment in the near run, excise taxes have a negative and considerable impact. According to the study, tax revenue is vital to private domestic investment and a driver of economic growth in Tanzania. As a result, progressive tax reform and a suitable tax structure are crucial for encouraging private investment. According to the conclusions, the Tanzanian government should implement a proper corporate income tax policy. In order to boost revenue collection and stimulate investment, nations through government should also decrease VAT rates, make easy their tax systems, address any shortcomings in tax administration, and shut any tax avoidance loopholes. The government should prioritize steps addressing excise tax administration, rate changes, and expanding the excise tax base. Furthermore, the government should sustain its spread advancement package in purpose to boost domestic firms to grow their operations.
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    Internal factors affecting the effectiveness of internal audit functions in Tanzania public sector: a case of selected ministries, independent departments and agencies
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Joseph, Paulo
    This study examined the internal factors affecting the effectiveness of internal audit functions in selected Tanzanian public entities. The study had three specific objectives, which were to examine the influence of internal audit independence on the effectiveness of the internal audit function. To find out the influence of staff competence on the effectiveness of the internal audit function in the public sector and the influence of allocated resources on the effectiveness of the internal function in the Tanzanian public sector. The theoretical framework of the study was based on three theories: institutional theory, Agency theory, and Stakeholder theory. The study adopted a cross-sectional research design by using a quantitative approach. Data were collected from a sample of 97 respondents from the selected public entities. By using the statistical package for social science (SPSS), Multiple linear regression was applied to analyze quantitative data collected from accountants and auditors. The findings show that the effectiveness of internal audit functions is statistically positively influenced by the existence of internal audit personnel who are functionally independent (p-value = 0.004) and competent in their day-to-day activities (p-value = 0.000). Furthermore, the allocation of required resources to the internal audit unit has significant effects on the effectiveness of internal audit functions (p-value = 0.011). Therefore, the study concludes that internal audit independence, staff competence, and the allocation of resources all have a positive and significant impact on the internal audit function. This study recommends that to improve the effect of internal audit functions, public institutions should take into account the role played by independence, competence, and resource allocation in internal audit functions. This will assist in understanding internal factors explaining internal audit effectiveness as well as helping public entities achieve their planned objectives. Further studies are recommended to consider collecting primary data from key internal audit stakeholders such as audit committee members, accounting officers, chief accountants, and external audit engagement partners.
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    The impact of macroeconomic indicators on exchange rate in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Chacha, Nyanchoka Machage
    Exchange rate in Tanzania has been fluctuating from time to time due to many factors. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the impact of macroeconomic indicators on exchange rate in Tanzania using annual time series data from 1991 to 2021.The study used Co integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM) to test the relationship between the macroeconomic indicators and exchange rate.The Granger causality test is also used to examine the causal link between variables. The unit root test indicated that all variables were integrated after first difference. The Johansen Co integration test result indicated that variables were co integrated. The Vector Error Correction model (VECM) indicates that there is positive short run and long run effect between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth rate and Interest rate on exchange rate while there is negative short run and long run impact of inflation rate on exchange rate in Tanzania. Granger causality test revealed that there is bidirectional causal relationship between GDP growth rate, Inflation rate and Trade openness on exchange rate while there is un-directional causal relationship between interest rate and exchange rate in Tanzania. Therefore, based on the results, this study recommends that the government of Tanzania through central bank should implement both monetary and fiscal policies to keep inflation rate, interest rate as well as GDP growth rate stable. Also the government should restrict over use of foreign currencies for domestic transactions so as to make our currency is stable compared to other currencies.
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    The influence of country of origin on customers’ purchase intention: a case of made in China consumer goods
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Riyami, Nadhira Khalid
    Country of origin has been found to be one among decision making aids that assist customers in evaluating products and make purchase decisions. It does not only impact purchasing decision, but also may determine success or failure of companies in the international markets. Despite vast research conducted, there is still a question on how it influences the purchase intention of customers toward Made in China goods that are perceived to be counterfeit. This study attempts to fill the research gap by examine the influence of country of origin on customers' purchase intention on Made in China consumer goods in Tanzania, where research is limited. The influence of country of origin have been studied specifically through analyzing its variables i.e. country image, product involvement and product familiarity, and how they impact purchase intention of Made in China electronic products. To achieve these objectives, a cross sectional descriptive survey was done and structured questionnaires were administered to 384 respondents located in Dodoma Urban district, Dodoma region, Tanzania. of those 287 questionnaires were return and could be used for analysis. Descriptive statistical analysis was done using structural equation modeling. The results show that customers purchase intentions are highly influenced with country of origin. The study observed that Country image, product involvement and familiarity have positive and significant influence on customers’ purchase intention with β = 0.094, p < 0.006, β = 0.487, p < 0.001 and β= 0.031, p= 0.017 respectively. Therefore, it is recommended that improving country image, creating high level of product involvement and familiarize customers with the products can be a winning strategy to local manufacturers and suppliers in both domestic and international markets. These findings are useful in formulating marketing strategies and could assist in business policy formulation and thus facilitate improvement and promotion of business and industrial sector in Tanzania
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    Service quality and customer satisfaction: a customer perspective of government procurement services agency in Dodoma city
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Amani, Jacqueline
    Customer satisfaction has been a prominent agenda in service provision for both public and private sectors. Over the years, there has been a complaint with regard to the service quality in the public sector services. Consequently, it is crucial to review public service quality to gain a deeper insight into how they can enhance customer satisfaction. This study aimed at examining the influence of the service quality at Government Agency specifically in the context of Government Procurement Service Agency (GPSA) in Dodoma City. The study comprised of five specific objectives based on the SERVQUAL model were each dimension (tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy) were assessed to find out how they influence customer satisfaction in the Agency’s services. The study used quantitative research design and cross-sectional design. Primary data were collected using a questionnaire from 137 respondents who were customers of GPSA Dodoma office selected using non-probability sampling using purposive techniques. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistics. Inferential statistics were used to examine the influence of each service quality dimensions to customer satisfaction where the relationship between each dimension and customer satisfaction was tested using simple linear regression model. The findings of regression analysis revealed positive significant relationship among all service quality dimensions and customer satisfaction. Specifically, (tangibility (β) =0.532, p<0.001, reliability (β) =0.578, p<0.001, responsiveness 0.546, p<0.001, assurance 0.574, p<0.001 and empathy 0.634, p<0.001. Therefore, this study concludes that the five dimensions of services quality influence customer satisfaction in the context of GPSA in Dodoma city. Priority should be given on improving reliability with little efforts on empathy without neglecting the others falling in between. Further studies are recommended on extending the study to other Government agencies or using a management perspective to examine service quality and customer at GPSA.
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    The impact of oil price volatility on inflation and economic growth in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Sabayo, Gibson
    The government of Tanzania is current experienced the uneven growth rate of GDP and sometimes leads to failure of attaining the national target this motivate this study conducted to address this problem. Therefore, the study examines the impact of Oil Price Volatility on inflation and economic growth in Tanzania. The research study was guided with the specific objectives as follows: to determine the impact of oil price volatility on economic growth in Tanzania; to examine the impact of Oil Price volatility on inflation in Tanzania; and to determine the causality of oil price volatility between inflation and economic growth in Tanzania. This study employed secondary data from Bank of Tanzania and National Bureau of Statistics. The modelling of time series data was done by using Auto regressive distributed lag model (ARDL). The study found that after controlling the effect of export and import, the oil price volatility has negative impact on economic growth. Furthermore, after controlling the effect of Exchange rate and Interest rate on the inflation rate it was found that the oil price volatility has positive impact on inflation in long run. whenever the oil price volatility increases by one percent the inflation rate increase by the rate of 1.340 percentage. Furthermore, the study found that there is no causality between the oil price volatility and economic growth, also there is a two-way direction of causality between economic growth and inflation rate and Last there is a one-way direction of the causality from the oil price volatility on inflation that is the oil price volatility enhanced the inflation rate. It is now the time of the Government through the Bank of Tanzania to manage the oil price volatility, exchange rate, export and import in order to curb those effects on inflation and economic growth. This study merely recommend that future studies may use quarterly data in order to obtain a larger number of observations that can be analyzed to see their impact on Tanzania's growth domestic product.
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    Comparative analysis of the effect of traditional and non-traditional exports on economic growth in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Msalilwa, Fredrick Nakoli
    Trade contribution especially foreign trade attracts great attention to the economic Tanzania’s growth has been implementing a variety of trade policy reforms to foreign trade. However, over time, the proportion of exports value has remained persistently low. Various empirical investigations exist on the link between international trade and the nation's economic growth. However, these empirical findings did not distinguish between impact of export diversification on economic growth. Instead, the study investigated the comparative analysis of effect of export diversification on the Tanzania’s economic growth. The study specifically investigated the effect of traditional exports, non-traditional exports, and total exports on economic growth in Tanzania. Also, exchange rate, foreign direct investment, and terms of trade, were used as control variable. The data covering 31 years (1991 to 2021) collected from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, World Bank and Bank of Tanzania were used. The study employed Johansen test, Granger Causality test, and vector error correction model. The model revealed that, traditional exports are insignificant and positive while non-traditional exports, grand total exports, and terms of trade have a significant and positive effect on economic growth in the long run. Further, the results showed a significant and negative relationship between exchange rates and economic growth in both short-run and long-run outcomes. Terms of trade, traditional export, and non-traditional export have a significant and positive effect on economic growth in the short run. This study concludes that Tanzania's economic growth is significantly influenced by traditional exports; non-traditional exports and grand total exports. According to the findings of the study, it is strongly advised that the Tanzanian government strengthens its export policies, with particular emphasis on non-traditional goods as opposed to traditional exports, as they play a crucial role in fostering the economic development of the country.
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    The effect of service innovation practices on customer acquisition: a case of savings and credit cooperative societies in Dar es salaam city
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Antony, Flora
    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of service innovation practices on customer acquisition in Savings and Credit Cooperative Societies (SACCOS) in Dar es Salaam City. Specifically, the study assessed the effect of Service conceptualization, service process and customer experience on customer acquisition in SACCOS. A study adopted cross-sectional research design. The sample size for this study was 226 Managers of SACCOS obtained through convenience sampling techniques. The study employed a quantitative research approach to gather and analyze numerical data collected by using closed ended questionnaires and analyzed by using binary logistic regression. Finding confirms effects of Service conceptualization on customer acquisition in SACCOS. By using logistic regression analysis chi-square statistic (LR chi2) yielded a substantial value of 196.96 with 3 degrees of freedom (Prob > chi2 = 0.00), affirming statistical significance. Furthermore, the pseudo-R-squared value of 0.63 indicated a model fit, elucidating approximately 63% of the variability in customer acquisition. Study findings also firmly concluded that service processes significantly affect customer acquisition in SACCOS. In the context of this objective, analysis provided crucial insights, backed by robust statistical evidence. The LR chi-square statistic yielded a highly significant value of 266.46 with 3 degrees of freedom (Prob > chi2 = 0.00), confirming statistical significance. Moreover, the model displayed an impressive pseudo-R-squared value of 0.85, effectively explaining approximately 85% of the variability in customer acquisition. Lastly customer experience effect customer acquisition in SACCOS. Analysis revealed critical factors, underpinned by robust statistical evidence. The LR chi-square statistic displayed a highly significant value of 264.16 with 3 degrees of freedom (Prob > chi2 = 0.00), confirming statistical significance. Furthermore, the pseudo-R-squared value of 0.84 indicated that the model effectively explained approximately 84% of the variability in customer acquisition. In conclusion, the research provides valuable insights for SACCOS on enhancing service modification, optimize the service process, innovation in customer touch points and enhancing new customer experiences can significantly impact customer acquisition.
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    Influence of own source revenue on financial sustainability in Dodoma city council, Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Kaaya, Elilanga Elibariki
    Despite the implementation of Decentralization-by-Devolution approach since 1990s in Tanzania, attainment of financial sustainability for Local Government Authorities has been still a challenge as most did not succeed to spend only their own source income hence going on to depend on the Central Government Fund. This has largely been affecting their delivery of public goods and services. Various initiatives have been taken and strategies devised to improve own source revenue collection including changing from manual to electronic system. This study attempted to examine the influence of own source revenue on the financial sustainability in Dodoma City Council (DCC), Tanzania. The study focused on exploring the existing types of own-source revenues, finding out the influence of fees, rents, number of own sources of revenue, share of own source revenue amount to total revenue and determining the contribution of project investments generating revenues on financial sustainability. The study used time series data from DCC, Presidents’ Office Regional Administration and Local Government, National Audit Office of Tanzania and the Ministry of Finance. The data were collected from July, 2013 to June, 2022. The Vector Autoregressive Model was used to analyse the collected data. It was found that rents, receipts, fees, charges, licences, levies, sales, and fines were the types of own source revenue of the DCC. Rents had a positive and negative influence on financial sustainability. The share of own source revenue amount to total revenue, the number of own source of revenue and project investments generating revenues were positively influencing financial sustainability in the short-run. It is recommended that DCC should subject minimum resources for collecting rents since they made its financial sustainability decline, ensure effective and efficient collection of fees with less operational costs, increase the number of own source revenues such as through constructing parking garage in high demand areas and charge for parking spaces and promote the share of own source revenue amount to total revenue to improve financial sustainability. It is also recommended that further studies be done on the contribution of levies, fines, penalties, sales, and licences on the financial sustainability in the DCC. Also, a fully-fledged study be done about the sustainability of investments made by the City Councils to have sufficient evidence in the provision of scientifically proper advice on own source revenue improvement.
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    Contribution of credit reference bureaus in monitoring non-performing loans in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mwakabalula, Atufigwege Jampion.
    Creditors in Tanzania have been experiencing a problem of nonperforming loans for a long time. The Bank of Tanzania, being the key regulator of the financial sector, confirmed the adoption of the Credit Reference Bureau model in 2012 following the trust gained from the model's role in addressing nonperforming loans in different places worldwide. However, recent statistics indicate that commercial banks still experience nonperforming loans. Therefore, this study aimed to assess Credit Reference Bureau's contribution in monitoring nonperforming loans in Tanzania. The study employed a panel data analysis approach with in-depth information from 54 commercial banks in Tanzania, using quarterly data from 2005 to 2020. Trend analysis of the period before and after adopting the Credit Reference Bureau model indicates no significant difference between the mean of these two periods. Furthermore, the trends for nonperforming loans have been experiencing fluctuations, with a high average in the period after the adoption of the Credit Reference Bureau model compared to the period before its adoption. Analysis of the effect of information pulled from Credit Reference Bureau indicates that the number of credit information pulled from Credit Reference Bureau for credit decisions was a good predictor of nonperforming loans among commercial banks with a negative relationship. This suggests that information shared by Credit Reference Bureau has a wider possibility of strengthening the monitoring of nonperforming loans. On gauging reliance on Credit Reference Bureaus in mitigating credit risks, results indicate that probable credit losses had a significant negative relationship with the proportion of customer onboarding, screened loan applications, loan repayment follow-ups and credit risk hedging. This implies that maximizing the proportion of customer onboarding, screened loan applications, loan repayment follow-ups and credit risk hedging among commercial banks, which are the direct roles of credit information sharing, will lower probable credit losses among commercial banks. The study recommends that Credit Reference Bureaus operating in Tanzania strengthen their credit information-sharing services to commercial banks and other financial institutions. Moreover, commercial banks should regularly evaluate their credit monitoring performance and work harmoniously with Credit Reference Bureau to strengthen credit information sharing to yield effects intended for monitoring nonperforming loans. Furthermore, through its organs, the government should set conducive fiscal and monetary policies favouring business operations toward success.
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    Technology utilization and customer satisfaction in health service delivery: a case of Benjamin Mkapa Hospital
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mssika, Ambele Adam
    Technology utilization in service delivery is currently becoming familiar in business and other related field, although there is little information on its application in customers’ satisfaction with health service delivery. Basically, the study examined technology utilization influence on customer satisfaction particularly in health service delivery using experience from Benjamin Mkapa Referral Hospital. Specifically, the study examined the influence of technology aided patient registration, electronic health records and bill payment on customer satisfaction in health service delivery. Cross-sectional design was applied in this study. It involved 376 respondents who filled out questionnaires. Quantitative data were analysed by using linear regression models. Specifically, findings revealed that patient registration contributes significantly to 25% of customer satisfaction in health service delivery (β = 0.248, p < 0.000), electronic health records contributes significantly to 42% of customer satisfaction in health service delivery (β = 0.423, p < 0.000) and bill payment contributes significantly to 29% of customer satisfaction in health service delivery (β = 0.289, p < 0.000). Therefore, technology utilization influences customer satisfaction in health service delivery. In this sense, utilization of technology in health service delivery needs to be improved in order to enhance customer satisfaction with health service delivery. As the patient registration technology influences customer satisfaction in health service delivery, the study recommends its application in order to get sustainable results, in areas such as private hospitals, health centres and dispensaries in order to satisfy customer with health service delivery. Further, as the use of electronic health records technology influences customer satisfaction in health service delivery, the study recommends to the direct users of technology to play their role particularly by learning proper application in order to satisfy customer satisfaction with health service delivery. Lastly, as the application of bill payment technology influences customer satisfaction in health service delivery, the study recommends to the owners of technology that is software developers to make more innovation on the current technology to make it affordable in terms of price and applicability in dispensaries and health centres in order to satisfy customer satisfaction with health service delivery.
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    Understanding the poverty dynamics and its determinants in Tanzania.
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mangi, E. P. I.
    Identification of driving factors that are highly related to poverty dynamics is a crucial aspect of formulating successful policies and strategies intending to end poverty. This study aimed at understanding the nature and the determinants of poverty dynamics in Tanzania. The study used National Panel surveys data to estimate the poverty dynamics in Tanzania. The study estimated the poverty dynamics across years using Markov Probability Model and explores the poverty dynamics across different social groups using descriptive analysis. The study also analyzed the determinants of poverty dynamics in Tanzania using the Multinomial Logit regression Model. The results show that 16.8 per cent of households were non-poor in 2008 but moved to poverty in 2010, 12 per cent of households were poor in 2008 but moved to non-poor in 2010 and 9.6 per cent of households were poor in 2008 but continued to be poor in 2010. Also, 13.2 per cent of households were non-poor in 2010 but dropped to poverty in 2012. The study results indicated households status were dynamic, households moved in and out of poverty over time. However, the study results indicated that household heads with secondary education or tertiary education maintained to be non-poor compared to primary education holder household heads. Moreover, the study results further indicated that a high percentage of poor households were found in rural areas compared to urban areas. The key social-economic determinants of poverty dynamics were household sizes, household head’s education status, household’s head area of residence, household head occupation, electricity connection and ownership of assets. Given this kind of poverty mobility, determining of nature of poverty dynamics and identification of socio-economic covariates of poverty dynamics are important processes in policies and strategies making process to end poverty in the country. From a policy point of view, each poverty trajectory would need different treatments. This means people who lay under chronic poverty need different policies to move them out of poverty and people who fall into transitory or impoverishment poverty would also need different policies.
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    Catastrophic effect ofout-of-pocket health care expenditure on household poverty in Tanzania: lessons from Tanzania panel survey
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Mwemutsi, Festo A.
    The study aimed to analyze the occurrence and severity of catastrophic health spending in Tanzania and its impact on household well-being. The logit model was used to investigate the factors that contribute to catastrophic out-of-pocket (OOP) health expenditure, while also addressing concerns related to estimate issues like endogeneity, heteroscedasticity, and multicollinearity. The findings of the study indicate that the incidence of catastrophic health expenditure, defined as spending more than 10% of total consumption expenditure on healthcare services, varied over time. The calculated headcount of catastrophic expenditure was 13.9% in 2008/2009, 14.5% in 2010/2011, and 14.1% in 2012/2013. This means that, on average, around 13.9% to 14.5% of interviewed households who sought healthcare and paid for it out of pocket spent more than 10% of their consumption expenditure on healthcare services during the specified periods. Similarly, the frequency and magnitude of catastrophic health payments at the 40% level exhibited some similarities. Regarding the consequences of catastrophic OOP expenses, the study found that the percentage of households that fell into poverty due to these expenses decreased from 3.6% in 2008/2009 to 2.5% in 2010/2011, but then slightly increased to 3.3% in 2012/2013. Overall, an average of 3.1% of the population was impoverished or made poor due to catastrophic health payments. The study also identified several factors associated with catastrophic OOP expenditure, namely household size, age of the household head (65+), and "exp" (which likely refers to an unmentioned variable). These variables were found to be determinants of households experiencing catastrophic health expenses. The study's results align with existing literature, indicating that out-of-pocket health expenses can lead to financial catastrophe for poor households, exacerbating their hardships and potentially forcing them to resort to risky coping mechanisms. Consequently, the study advocates for the implementation of new and strengthened strategies to protect poor households from such catastrophic health costs. In conclusion, this research sheds light on the prevalence and implications of catastrophic health spending in Tanzania, emphasizing the need for policies and interventions to safeguard vulnerable households from the economic burden of out-of-pocket healthcare expenses.
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    Impact of village community banks on household’s saving, investment and welfare in Kilosa district, Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Ismail, J.
    Village Community Banks (VICOBA) has been acknowledged to contribute on livelihood improvement among informal saving and lending groups. Yet there are debates about its impacts on sustainable saving, income generation and welfare of the participants, that saving and investment of members distinct from their groups have remained poor and no clear delineation of impacts on these vital outcomes. This study adopted cross-sectional design to examine the impacts of VICOBA membership on saving, investment and welfare status of the households in Tanzania. Using primary survey data from a randomly selected sample of 99 VICOBA members and 203 non-members in Kilosa District, the study employed Propensity Score Matching (PSM) and Endogenous Switching Regression (ESR) Quasi-experimental impact evaluation methods. The PSM results showed that Average Treatment effect on Treated (ATT) was positively significant at 1% on investment, and monthly income spent on household consumption (indicator of welfare) at 5% significant level, while it was positive but differed significance on saving across matching algorithms. After controlling for bias from both observable and unobservable covariates, ESR method confirmed the findings and further showed that even ATT on saving was positively significant though marginally. It concludes that VICOBA membership has positive impacts on household savings, investment and welfare, so VICOBA provides behavioral practice and aspiration to save and invest. The study also has implications for policy makers and development partners, suggesting that the government should improve the operational system and have legal and regulatory framework to help local government authorities monitor, regulate and integrate fully these groups into development plans and activities at the local level. This can provide easy and effective link between government’s credit schemes and unbanked low-income segments of the population because the groups are clear, less cost and ease to manage and operate.
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    Determinants of customer satisfaction with electronic services in public sector: a case of Tanzania immigration department
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Maige, C
    This study aimed to examine the determinants of Customer satisfaction with e-services in the public sector, with a particular focus on the Immigration Department in Tanzania. It had three specific objectives: first, to examine the influence of system quality on Customer satisfaction with e-services in the public sector. Secondly, to assess the effect of information quality on customer satisfaction with e-services in the public sector, and lastly, to examine the influence of service quality on Customer satisfaction with e-services in the public sector. The study was guided by Information System success theory and researcher used quantitative approach. The study used a sample of 300 respondents who utilized immigration services in Tanzania and were selected using probability sampling method. The study used a cross-sectional research design and analyzed data using multiple regression analysis with the aid of SPSS v20 analytical tool. The study found that Customer perceptions of e-service system quality were relatively low, with mean scores below the midpoint of 1 to 5 likert scale. However, Customer perceptions of e-service information quality were moderate, with mean scores slightly higher than the midpoint of 1 to 5 likert scale. The firm's overall service quality was moderate to low across all dimensions, suggesting that while immigration services are generally regarded as credible, responsive, and reassuring, there are significant areas for improvement, particularly in terms of tangibility and empathy. The study concluded that Customer satisfaction is significantly influenced by the reliability and security of the system. The research emphasizes the significance of system reliability, security, information accuracy, relevancy, and timeliness, along with tangibility, service assurance, and empathy, in shaping customer perceptions, experiences, and satisfaction. The study recommends the immigration department to set up strict quality control procedures to make sure that the information it sends to clients is correct, up-to-date, and relevant. Using data analytics and letting customers help with the planning process can help tailor services to individual needs, which will ultimately make customers happier overall and make the system seem more usable and responsive, managers should set up training programmes for users and ask them for feedback. This method will make it easier to find and fix problems with system design, technology glitches, and limited features, which will improve the user experience and make customers happier
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    The role of information and communication technology infrastructure and access to economic growth in Tanzania
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023)
    This study examined the role of information and communication technology infrastructure and access tothe economic growth in Tanzania using mobile cellular subscriptions (per 100 people) and fixed telephone subscriptions (per 100 people) as a proxy of ICT infrastructure access and usage. It was guided by the theories of neoclassical growth and new growth theory. Auto Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model was used to achieve the objectives of the study employing annual data spanning from 1994 to 2021. The analysis focused on fixed telephone and mobile cellular subscriptions as indicators of ICT investment, with real GDP per capita as the dependent variable. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between ICT infrastructure and access to economic growth in the short run while in the long run, the variables were not significant. Increases in fixed telephone and mobile cellular subscriptions were associated with an impact on economic growth. In particular, while mobile cellular subscription growth exhibits a significant impact on economic growth in the short run in Tanzania, it does not appear to be significant in the long run. This suggests that, at early stages of digitalization, adoption of mobile telecommunications gives a boost to economic growth, as early adapters tend to be very effective users. However, diminishing marginal returns appear to result, as other production factors may not fully absorb technological advancements. The study suggests that policymakers and stakeholders should prioritise the promotion and investment in ICT infrastructure to drive economic development. The study also emphasises the importance of addressing challenges related to internet connectivity, access, and affordability to ensure broader inclusion in the benefits of ICT. Furthermore, investing in human capital development can complement ICT investment and contribute to GDP growth. These findings give valuable insights for policymakers in Tanzania to maximise the sustainable and inclusive benefits of ICT for economic growth.
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    The Influence of Business Skills on The Performance of Women Owned Small and Medium Enterprises: A Case of Women Groups in Dodoma City
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Gallet, G. L.
    Business skills and performance of SMEs is currently becoming common in business and social science in general, however there is scarce information on its influence on performance of women owned SMEs. The study attempted to examine the business skills’ influence on women owned SMEs performance. Basically, this study was conducted in Dodoma city. Specifically, the study examined the influence of marketing skills, financial management skills, leadership skills and interpersonal skills on performance of women owned SMEs. The study applied cross-sectional design and quantitative approach. Data was collected from 222 targeted respondents. Further, the study used simple and purposive sampling to get required respondents. Questionnaire survey was the main tool for data collection. The computation of descriptive and inferential statistics was done using SPSS software. Linear regression model was applied in inferential statistics. The testing of relationship between independent variables involving business skills and dependent variable which is business performance was done using regression analysis. Results from descriptive statistics revealed that marketing skills, financial management skills, leadership skills and interpersonal skills influence SMEs performance. Specifically, findings from inferential statistics show that marketing skills contributes significantly to almost 28% of women owned business performance (β = 0.283, p < 0.001), financial management skills contributes significantly to 42% of women owned business performance (β = 0.423, p < 0.000), leadership skills contributes significantly to 45% of women owned business performance (β = 0.445, p < 0.000) and interpersonal skills contributes significantly to almost 29% of women owned business performance (β = 0.288, p < 0.000) in the study area. Therefore, business skills influenced the performance of women owned SMEs. In regard to this, the study concludes that to achieve required performance, firms owned by women need to put more emphasis on training related to business skills in order to enhance performance of their SMEs. The study recommends on provision of appropriate business skills training to the women groups to support improvement of their performance and create more employment opportunities. Also, the study recommends to the policy makers to ensure there’s a policy attempting to force the government to set aside funds that can be used in training and upgrading the best performing small business.
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    Factors affecting the performance of micro and small manufacturing enterprises in Tanzania, a case of Dodoma City
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Praygod, G.
    The research aimed at analysing internal factors affecting the performance of manufacturing MSEs in Dodoma. Specifically, it examined the influence of ability to access finance, business skills, and in-house training on the performance of manufacturing MSEs. The study was conducted in Dodoma city, where about 200 manufacturing MSEs were sampled. Cross-sectional fact-finding design and a quantitative approach were adopted in establishing the relationship between the variables. Through questionnaire’s the data was collected and analyzed through descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis. Findings revealed that ability to access finance positively and significantly influence the performance of manufacturing MSEs. The study did also reveal that business skills like that of financial management skills, marketing skills, decision making skills and management skills have a positive and significant impact on the performance of manufacturing MSEs. Furthermore, a discovery was made on positive and significant influence, business in-house training has on MSEs performance. The study concluded that access to finance has a positive and significant impact on the performance of MSEs. Ability to access finance provides a manufacturing firm good capital outlay for the business running the daily operations. Also, the need for business skills for better MSEs performance is high. When owners are equipped with proper business skills, a better performance of the business is achieved. Additionally, since most of the MSEs have limited capital, in house training found to help in performance of the business. The study recommends that, the owner manager should increase their ability to manage and access fund that are necessary for business performance. Also, MSE’s Owners should encourage in-house training to save cost of the MSEs in attaining different skills for running their daily operations.
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    The influence of brand credibility on consumer's purchase intention of diary products at Dodoma city council in Tanzania endogeneity
    (The University of Dodoma, 2023) Olotu, H.
    The study aimed to examine the influence of brand credibility on consumer's purchase intention in dairy product in Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined the influence on brand trustworthiness, brand expertise and brand attractiveness on consumers purchase intention. The study used cross-sectional research design with quantitative approach and collected data from a sample of 323 consumers residing in Dodoma City by using questionnaire. The study guided by source credibility theory which assumed that consumers are more likely to be persuaded when the source presents itself as credible. The findings show that brand trustworthiness, brand expertise and brand attractiveness influence consumers purchase intention of dairy product. Specifically, honesty, company history and trustworthy are indicators of brand trustworthiness. The result showed that honesty and trustworthy statistical significance influence purchase intention. The attribute "Honesty" exhibited statistical significance with a coefficient of 0.37648 (p = 0.038). Also, skills, experience and knowledge are indicators of brand Expertise which Experience and Knowledge had coefficients of -11.23 (p =0.001), 15.35036 (p =0.001) were statistically significant influence purchase intention. Additionally, level of customers services, quality and brand reputation are indicators of brand attractiveness which found that brand reputation with coefficient of 1.123394(p=0.002) and reputation with coefficient 3.857913 (p=0.001) were statistically significant influence purchase intention. In conclusion, this study's findings underscore the importance of brand trustworthiness, expertise, and attractiveness in influencing consumers' purchase intention of dairy products mainly fresh milk and yoghurt. By strategically focusing on these attributes and improving consumers' perceptions, dairy product brands can foster purchase intention. Based on the findings it was recommended to increase consumers' trust in dairy brands through transparency, to communicate with their expertise effectively to target consumers and invest in branding, packaging, and marketing efforts to create an attractive and appealing brand image.